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Tnaaq clitics
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Finally!! all clitics in Tnaaq! (aaaaall of them)
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 9 Apr 2017, 18:24.

[comments] Menu
1. Person/case clitics
2. Noun incorporation
3. Mode/evidentiality clitics
4. Emphatic and connective clitics
5. Clitic order
6. Nominal phrase clitics

?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

Tnaaq uses a pretty big set of second position clitics. These come after the first phonological word and become attached to it. They are used to express different meanings, including person/case, mode, former incorporated nominals, voice, evidentiality, clause linking and "attitudes/emotions".

Their clitic status is clear when auxiliary verbs and complementizers are involved:

▼ Examples
Sikaaqirknusrarskainai.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad
Sadly, we will argue about/because of him again.

Satirknusrarskainai kaaqut.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad hit-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

... we argued...

Saa nrknusrarskainai skaaqi.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
PROGRUnknown code=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

We are arguing...

Ii n sau nurtn qrtnusrarskainai sikaaqi.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-exist LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
= GEN
duty CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

We have to argue...

Turknusrarskainai sikaaqi?
QInterrogative
question
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-INTERUnknown code-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

Are we arguing...?

Tuntusarknusrarskainai sikaaqi?
why=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-INTERUnknown code-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Why are we arguing...?


[top]Person/case clitics

There are three different sets of person prefixes. Oblique and locative clitics can't appear together. Masculine is different from feminine only in ergative. The feminine is used seldom, and a general animate is common. The order between them is fixed:
[LOC/OBL=ERG].



123
Masc/AnimFemInanim
ERGskt/rnu
OBLstttrtntut
LOCskkkrknkuk


Ergative:
The ergative clitic is used with transitive verbs to show the agent. Third person clitics, when present, are anaphorical (they refer to already mentioned things).

▼ Examples
Atis nahunt knaik.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
feed-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
DEFDefinite
"the"
-pig
I fed the pigs.

Tuk iati nahunt knaik?
Q=2.ERG 3-IRR-PFV-PL feed-PFV DEF-pig?
Did you fed the pigs?

*Atit nahunt tUnkarank knaik
3-PFV-PL feed-PFV D-Unkarank DEF-pig
Unkarank fed the pigs.

Ati tUnkarank nahunt knaik, atitsauha suntyt knuxna.
3-PFV-PL D-Unkarank feed-PFV DEF-pig, 3-PFV-PL=then water-PFV DEF-terror.bird
Unkarank fed the pigs, then he watered the terror birds.


Oblique clitics:
Oblique is used for benefactive and covers some preposicional verbs. The locative covers position but also other meanings, and is used in common auxiliary constructions.
They appear with some verbs instead of a required prepositional phrase. Applicative verbs and passive verbs also use this suffixes as the agent or benefactive.
▼ Examples

Atist tUnkarank nurnahunt knaik.
3-PFV-PL=1.OBL D-Unkarank APPL-feed-PFV DEF-pig
Unkarank fed the pigs for me.

Iqnahunityst knaik.
3-PAS-feed-PL-PFV DEF-pig
The pigs were fed by me.

Sukiihkrtnak q niqunati us qutaasi.
1-pull=3PlObl=REFL C 3-IRR.come-PL PURP DEF-party
I expect them to come to the party.


Locative clitics:
They're used with the other set of suffixes to indicate both physical and metaphorical locations

▼ Examples
Iinknauqqaa ariihauna.
3-be=3F.LOC=on.head=EXC NMZ-ugly.
She's wearing an ugly one (hat). (wear on head)

Stiisisktuq naik n uaxiikrtn!
3-NEG.be-PL=1.LOC=EMPH pig REL 3-butcher-RES
I havent butchered a pig before!


[top]Noun incorporation

Some Tnaaq verbs take clitics that were former independent nouns. Most of the nouns that were incorporated in this way relate to parts of the body, the meaning of the compounds sometimes has changed so it is not inferable. Some of the clitics have specialized to this function, and a new word has been created to appear by itself. These clitics come after the person clitics and before the modals. They are divided in 3 groups according to their function, and they come in the following order:
[voice]+[positionals]+[corporal]

Voice clitics
They are used to change the voice of the clause. the reflexive =nau and the reciprocal =nus

=nus: Reciprocal
This prefix comes from an old root for body, but it can't be found as an independent root in Classic Tnaaq. It requires the -i plural in the verb.

.NkSVvhSZNiTHTHiV
Nuuht htyy n sushaninuskan.
nuuht
time
∅-htyy
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-much
n
RELRelative
s-us-han-i=nus=kan
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-open-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=RECIPUnknown code=arm

We hugged for a long time.

=nau: Reflexive
This comes from the common word for body, 'taunau'.

uktar nau: wake up
.NTSVRtKWPMTRtKZMTipQ
Quqaatnau suktart nauq uktarnustn.
quqaat=nau
yesterday=REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
s-uktar-t
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-wake.up-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
n=auq
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=face
uktarnustn
sunrise

Yesterday I woke up before sunrise.

Positionals
They mark the goal of a movement, grounds and positions. See Tnaaq positionals for these ones.

Part
They retain more the body part meaning, but they can also be used for metaphoric extensions such as emotions.

=us: Cognitive
The current word for liver is 'hkanq', and speakers can't relate =us to that meaning. As an independent noun it predates first texts.

usaustans: bring back
usaustans us: remember

?SNtSCBzSEU
Tukus siqausaustans?
tu=k=us
QInterrogative
question
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
=mind
s-(i)qa-us-austans
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-return

Can you remember me?

=taq: instrumental
This is a general instrumental. It is more used as a nominal phrase clitic, but it sometimes appears with verbs in the older documents.

=tu: foot *Noun: utyyty

This clitic has several meanings, including activities performed by foot, with the foot or in a stepping manner.

=nak: stomach (emotional) *Noun: nak (belly), rasti (stomach)

=(h)aq: mouth (sound-related) *Noun: aq (mouth cavity), kauk (as a whole)

uriisana: play uriisana haq: sing


=(h)auq: face (emotional) *Noun: hauq

suusnar: hide
suusnar/asuusnar auq: be/act like a coward

.KiEKBKTRnSiZex
Ati suusnart kyqau kytuuq
Ati
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-suusnar-t
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-hide-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
k-qau
DEFDefinite
"the"
-dog
k-tuuq
DEFDefinite
"the"
-bone

The dog hid the bones

Aikasuusnarauq!
!PLnSiZkA
aikasuusnarauq
IMPImperative (mood)
command
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-TSun element (gender/class)-hide=face

Don't be a coward!

=(h)aih: head (cognitive) *Noun: haih

tan: catch tan haih: learn, memorize


=kan: arm (instrumental)*Noun:kanha

This clitic is used when the activity from the verb is performed with the hand or with a hand tool.

=xun: bidimensional

=iq: liquid

[top]Mode/evidentiality clitics


Modal:
=ai desiderative
Tukai inauh sannur?
tu=k=ai
QInterrogative
question
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
=DESDesiderative (mood)
wishes, desires, wants
∅-i-nau-ah
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-eat-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SUBJUnknown code
san-nur
bread-sweet?

Would you guys like to eat cake?

=inaik des. neg
Sniqunihkkaahinaiqqitkai.
s-n(i)qun-ihk=kaa=inaik=qit=skai
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-(IRRIrrealis
mood
)go-TRASUnknown code=beach=DESDesiderative (mood)
wishes, desires, wants
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
=fuck=again

I don't wanna go to the fucking beach again.

=xaix obligative (syntax: ii xaix X q FV)

=nnu gnomic

Uanqunsai iuu nauqannu sntaharqanuu
Ua-nqun-sai
NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-go-along
iuu
person
n=auqa=nnu
RELRelative=face=GNOGnomic (aspect/mood)
common, timeless truths
s-nta-har-q-anuu
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability
-say-show


A friend is one before whom I may think aloud.

=ris certainty

=suu I think

=tqai: Weak possibility (nta-V=tqai)

=xyyk: Strong possibility (nta-V=xyyk)

The following are used to form a conditional:

n (irr)-V=sauti implicative
Quqsau uuksauti n isiiqsaq iintuis qurt su iaitqa.
quqsau uuk=sauti
today=CONDConditional (mood)
'if'
PROGR
RELRelative
∅-i-siiqsaq
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-rain
∅-i-untuis
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-smell.like
qurt
soil
su
to
iaitqa
wet.soil

If it rains today it will smell like wet soil.

n (irr)=suu hipotetical
Kasiiqsaqsuu n iaat niqunqutat tanqan nraa nuuht.
k-a-siiqsaq=suu
DEFDefinite
"the"
-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-rain=CONDConditional (mood)
'if'
n
PROGRUnknown code
∅-iaa-t
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-stop-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
∅-n(i)qun-qut-at
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-(IRRIrrealis
mood
)come-home-CISUnknown code
ta-nqan
NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-father
n=raa
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=back
nuuht
time

If the rain stopped your father would come home earlier.

n (irr)=aqsy counterfactual
Isqaxats asuxasiq nysaqsy iinaq q siiqsaq n qurtan aik.
∅-i-sqax-at=s
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-bring-CISUnknown code=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
a-suxas-iq
NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-cover-water
n=aqsy
PROGRUnknown code=CONDConditional (mood)
'if'
∅-i-iinaq 3-IRR-know q
CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
∅-siiqsaq
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-rain
n
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
qurtan
night
aik
DEMDemonstrative
e.g. this/ that
.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker

I would have brought an umbrella if I had known that it was going to rain tonight.

[top]Emphatic and connective clitics

Emphatic:
=is emphatic/mirative
Used for conveying information considered new for the listener.

=xai emphatic/suddenly
It is used for events that have just happened and were abrupt or unexpected.

=inai emphatic (sad)
It appears on complains. It was used un older times for petitions, as a self-humiliating way of speaking to higher hierarchy people.

Snuraatnitiniqaiauhi
s-nur-aatn-i-t=iq=inai=auhi
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-APLUnknown code-run.out-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
=sad=just

We just ran out of water :C

=kaa aseverative
This clitic implies that the speaker holds what xe says as truth, but not common knowledge (gnomic clitic =nnu is used in those cases)

=qit fucking x

Tuntusaqqit inuraat?
tuntusaqqit
why=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
=fuck
s-i-nur-aa-t
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-APLUnknown code-do-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
?

Why did you fucking do this to me?

Connective
=sauha then (non causal)
=sai simultaneous (used with n)
=irau then (causal)

Discursive/Adverbial
=uuti: too, also
=tnau so, because of that
=auhi just
=nty what about?
=tnuu keep on x, still, yet
=skai again
=qsy instead
=ank: partitive, do some x
=tuuq not before

[top]Clitic order

ALL THESE CLITICS COME IN SECOND POSITION OF THE PHRASE
WORD=[DAT=ACU=NOM=LOC]=[ASP=VOICE=POS=CORP]=[MODE=EVID=EMPH]=[CONN=DISC]

Na nuqsytsainakinaikinaisauhauti siqaxihki: that's why she doesn't want to take them along with her to there for me, too (how sad!)
n=uq=st=sai=nak=inaik=inai=sauha=uuti
n=3.INAN.ACC=1.DAT=along=ILAT=DES.NEG=sad=then=too
n=ACC=DAT=ASP=POS=MODE=CON1=CON2=EMPH

[top]Nominal phrase clitics

There are some clitics that do not behave in the most used version of Tnaaq as second position. They attach to the end of a nominal phrase instead and mark several shades of meaning, mostly case of the NP. They have recently grammaticalized from determinants.

first position:
=rs correferentiality of a 3rd person. Contrast:
At kart Ati nau sqaastat: Ati(h) broke her(i) pencil.
At kart Ati nau sqaastatrs: Ati broke her own pencil.
At nquunatinak, sqaxihkatn ra raantnqasrs. They came and took their own television away.
At nquunatinak, sqahihkatn ra raantnqas. They(i) came and took their(j) television away.

Second position:
=a Possesive genitive
=taq instrumental
=uuti comitative (also present in the second position)
=tar origin genitive
=ran material genitive

There are two clitic conjunctions:

N N=qur: N or N

N=qur N=qur

N N=kn: N and N
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