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Tnaaq clitics
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Finally!! all clitics in Tnaaq! (aaaaall of them)
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 2 Jan 2017, 01:08.

[comments] Menu
1. Person/case clitics
2. Noun incorporation
3. Mode/evidentiality clitics
4. Emphatic and connective clitics
5. Clitic order
6. Nominal phrase clitics

?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

Tnaaq uses a pretty big set of second position clitics. These come after the first phonological word and become attached to it. They are used to express different meanings, including person/case, mode, former incorporated nominals, voice, evidentiality, clause linking and "attitudes/emotions".

Their clitic status is clear when auxiliary verbs and complementizers are involved:

▼ Examples
Sikaaqirknusrarskainai.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad
Sadly, we will argue about/because of him again.

Satirknusrarskainai kaaqut.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad hit-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

... we argued...

Saa nrknusrarskainai skaaqi.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
PROGRUnknown code=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

We are arguing...

Ii n sau nurtn qrtnusrarskainai sikaaqi.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-exist LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
= GEN
duty CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

We have to argue...

Turknusrarskainai sikaaqi?
QInterrogative
question
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-INTERUnknown code-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

Are we arguing...?

Tuntusarknusrarskainai sikaaqi?
why=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-INTERUnknown code-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Why are we arguing...?


[top]Person/case clitics

There are three different sets of person prefixes. Oblique and locative clitics can't appear together. Masculine is different from feminine only in ergative. The feminine is used seldom, and a general animate is common. The order between them is fixed:
[LOC/OBL=ERG].



123
Masc/AnimFemInanim
ERGskt/rnu
OBLstttrtntut
LOCskkkrknkuk


Ergative:
The ergative clitic is used with transitive verbs to show the agent. Third person clitics, when present, are anaphorical (they refer to already mentioned things).

▼ Examples
Atis nahunt knaik.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
feed-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
DEFDefinite
"the"
-pig
I fed the pigs.

Tuk iati nahunt knaik?
Q=2.ERG 3-IRR-PFV-PL feed-PFV DEF-pig?
Did you fed the pigs?

*Atit nahunt tUnkarank knaik
3-PFV-PL feed-PFV D-Unkarank DEF-pig
Unkarank fed the pigs.

Ati tUnkarank nahunt knaik, atitsauha suntyt knuxna.
3-PFV-PL D-Unkarank feed-PFV DEF-pig, 3-PFV-PL=then water-PFV DEF-terror.bird
Unkarank fed the pigs, then he watered the terror birds.


Oblique clitics:
Oblique is used for benefactive and covers some preposicional verbs. The locative covers position but also other meanings, and is used in common auxiliary constructions.
They appear with some verbs instead of a required prepositional phrase. Applicative verbs and passive verbs also use this suffixes as the agent or benefactive.
▼ Examples

Atist tUnkarank nurnahunt knaik.
3-PFV-PL=1.OBL D-Unkarank APPL-feed-PFV DEF-pig
Unkarank fed the pigs for me.

Iqnahunityst knaik.
3-PAS-feed-PL-PFV DEF-pig
The pigs were fed by me.

Sukiihkrtnak q niqunati us qutaasi.
1-pull=3PlObl=REFL C 3-IRR.come-PL PURP DEF-party
I expect them to come to the party.


Locative clitics:
They're used with the other set of suffixes to indicate both physical and metaphorical locations

▼ Examples
Iinknauqqaa ariihauna.
3-be=3F.LOC=on.head=EXC NMZ-ugly.
She's wearing an ugly one (hat). (wear on head)

Stiisisktuq naik n uaxiikrtn!
3-NEG.be-PL=1.LOC=EMPH pig REL 3-butcher-RES
I havent butchered a pig before!


[top]Noun incorporation

Some Tnaaq verbs take clitics that were former incorporated nouns. Most of the nouns that were incorporated in this way relate to parts of the body, the meaning of the compounds sometimes has changed so it is not inferable. Some of the clitics have specialized to this function, and a new word has been created to appear by itself. These clitics come after the person clitics and before the modals.

=nus: body (reciprocal) *Noun: taunau
=nau: body (reflexive) *Noun: taunau
=us: liver (cognitive) *Noun: hkanq
=taq: instrumental *Noun: kanha
=tu: foot *Noun: utyyty
=nak: stomach (emotional) *Noun: nak (belly), rasti (stomach)
=(h)aq: mouth (sound-related) *Noun: aq (mouth cavity), kauk (as a whole)
=(h)auq: face (emotional) *Noun: hauq
=(h)aih: head (cognitive) *Noun: haih
=kan: arm (instrumental)*Noun:kanha
=xun: bidimensional
=iq: liquid

The clitic=taq is a more general instrumental. =kan and =tu refer to tools used by hand and hand-like objects, and to long objects.

Next are some examples of verbs that use noun clitics:

suusnar: hide suusnar/asuusnar auq: be/act like a coward

Ati suusnart kyqau kytuuq: the dog hid the bones
kak asuusnarauqank! Don't be such a coward!

usaustans: bring back usaustans us: remember

tukusyt siisaustans?
tu=k=us=yt
QInterrogative
question
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
=liver=can
s-i-us-austans
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-return

Can you remember me?

tan: catch tan haih: learn, memorize (catch head)
uktar nus: wake up
uriisana: play uriisana haq: sing
ixin tu feet pain ixin haih headache

They are divided in 3 groups according to their function, and they come in the following order:
[aspect]+[voice]+[positionals]+[corporal]
Aspect: See below. The might have been incorporated bodyparts in a former stage.
Voice: they are used to change the voice of the clause. the reflexive =nau and the reciprocal =nus
Positionals: they mark the goal of a movement, surfaces and positions. See Tnaaq positionals for these ones.
Corporal: they retain more the body part meaning, but they can also be used for metaphoric extensions such as emotions.

[top]Mode/evidentiality clitics


Modal:
=ai desiderative
=inaik des. neg
=xaix obligative (syntax: ii xaix X q FV)

=nnu gnomic
=ris certainty
=suu I think
=tqai: Weak possibility (nta-V=tqai)
=xyyk: Strong possibility (nta-V=xyyk)

The following are used to form a conditional:
n (irr)-V=sauti predictive
n (irr)=rnu posibility
n (irr)=aqsy counterfactual


Akatunuu, inausinaik ryyhki raix.
No, thanks, I don't want to eat more ryyhki.

Evidentiality


[top]Emphatic and connective clitics

Emphatic:
=is emphatic/mirative
=xai emphatic/suddenly
=inai emphatic (sad)
=kaa strong emphatic
=qit fucking x

Connective
=sauha then (non causal)
=sai simultaneous (used with n)
=tn and (only for VP)
=yyt/=qur: or

Discursive/Adverbial
=uuti: too
=auhi just
=nty what about?
=tnuu keep on x, still, yet
=skai again
=qsy instead
=ank: partitive, do some x
=tuuq not before

[top]Clitic order

ALL THESE CLITICS COME IN SECOND POSITION OF THE PHRASE
WORD=[DAT=ACU=NOM=LOC]=[ASP=VOICE=POS=CORP]=[MODE=EVID=EMPH]=[CONN=DISC]

Na nuqsytsainakinaikinaisauhauti siqaxihki: that's why she doesn't want to take them along with her to there for me, too (how sad!)
n=uq=st=sai=nak=inaik=inai=sauha=uuti
n=3.INAN.ACC=1.DAT=along=ILAT=DES.NEG=sad=then=too
n=ACC=DAT=ASP=POS=MODE=CON1=CON2=EMPH

[top]Nominal phrase clitics

There are some clitics that do not behave in the most used version of Tnaaq as second position. They attach to the end of a nominal phrase instead and mark several shades of meaning, mostly case of the NP. They have recently grammaticalized from determinants.

first position:
=rs correferentiality of a 3rd person. Contrast:
At kart Ati nau sqaastat: Ati(h) broke her(i) pencil.
At kart Ati nau sqaastatrs: Ati broke her own pencil.
At nquunatinak, sqaxihkatn ra raantnqasrs. They came and took their own television away.
At nquunatinak, sqahihkatn ra raantnqas. They(i) came and took their(j) television away.

Second position:
=a Possesive genitive
=taq instrumental
=uuti comitative (also present in the second position)
=tar origin genitive
=ran material genitive

There are two clitic conjunctions:

N N=qur: N or N

N=qur N=qur

N N=kn: N and N
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