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Tnaaq derivation
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Tnaaq derivational morphology
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 16 Feb 2017, 15:06.

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1. Nominalization
2. Derivated verbs
3. Verb serialization

This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.


Verbs can be turned into nouns that code the agent. They're formed by the gender/number prefixes in the verb. The verb can be inflected for the patient in relational verbs (like kinship and positionals). Inalienable nouns are marked by suffix -n.

Tasarau/Nasarau/Uasarau: male/female/indiferent or plural-writer
Tusuusnarauq: a coward/Nusuusnarauq/Uausuusnarauq: coward man/female/person-people
Tasnqan/Nasnqan/uasnqan: my father/mother/parent(s)

To denote the patient of the verb the gender/number clitics are also used. The verb is suffixed with -t. Most of this nominalizations have a prefix n- before the verb stem. Different nouns can be derived in this way.
Uanqataht: an engraving
Tanusant: a murdered man
Ansaraut: letter
Asaraut: text

An instrument can be marked by the habitual form of the verb (reduplication of the first syllable) and the gender prefixes. They can also be formed with those prefixes and a suffix -taq:
asasarau: pen, writing tool.
arahquttaq: blowgun (lit. the thing which you blowgun-shoot with.)

There is another patient nominalization that is only used for resultatives. It is made with the suffix -tn. The extent on which this suffix competes with the prefixation of a nominalizer varies according to the period of the writing. Current use accepts both versions most of the time, but there might be a shade of formality associated with some of the forms, being the suffix more informal most of the cases.
qataht: engrave
qatahtn: engraving

Nouns for the activity itself are derived with the preffix a- and the verb stem. This can be ambiguous with the patient nominalizations.
Anau: eating
Ausant: murder

[top]Derivated verbs

There are several affixes that can make a nominal to have verb inflection.
tna- : to make X (the nominalization of this makes for abstract nouns)
-ha : X-like, to have x
tnasu- be made by X
qau-: to feel x (sensorial)
-kni: to lack

Some other affixes can be used with verb to change their meaning:
-raq: easy to x
RED-X-ha: pretend to x, try to x
san-: intend to x
-aris: too much x
nats-: un-x, opposite
knau-: causative of nats-
ihk-become x
-qntaka: hard to x
-qqaih seem to x, pretend to x

[top]Verb serialization

VnV: V while V
VqV: V for V (purpose)

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