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Tnaaq syntax
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Tnaaq phrases and sentences
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 2 Jan 2017, 01:19.

[comments] Menu
1. Noun phrases
2. Predicate nouns
3. Verb phrases
4. Sentence order
5. Interrogatives
6. Topic

?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

[top]Noun phrases

A relative clause follows the noun. Numerals follow next, then demostratives. Finally the clitics:
kyqiinuta: the table
kyqiinuta kyyr: the black table
kyqiinuta kyyr ar: the two black tables
kyqiinuta kyyr ar Atia: Ati's two black tables
kyqiinuta kyyr ar Atiataq: with Ati's two black tables

There are two ways of adding a modifier to the noun. Adjectives are usually stative verbs. If they are meant to describe a permanent situation or quality then a nominalised form of the adjective is used after the noun. If the adjective is used for a transitory state then a verbal form is used. Verbal forms in this way are considered as relative clauses, but they don't require the relativiser n. Numbers add a suffix -n.

Demostratives usually go last in a sentence, but a relativised clause may follow them if it's longer than one word (i.e. if it has a complement).

There are finally some clitics that are attached to the noun phrase and indicate some cases:

=uuti: comitative

=taq: instrumental

=tar: origin

=ran: material
This one is used to identify material. It is also used with quantifiers.

T'ai kainait ruuran n kau ruqni?
Is a ship of fish enough for you?
(A ship full of fish/A ship made of fish)

=a: possesor

[top]Predicate nouns

Predicate nouns are noun phrases used as a predicate. There is a copula used for irrealis and/or negative, realis affirmative being made by zero copula.

[top]Verb phrases


[top]Sentence order

The main order is VSO. Interrogatives and topicalized NPs appear first. Temporal adverbs tend to appear first.
If the object is not specific it becomes incorporated, an shifts next to the verb, so the order is then VOS.

[top]Interrogatives

Polar questions
Polar questions use the question particle 'tu' first in the sentence.

Interrogative pronouns
PronounUse
tiwho
trwhat
tuuhtwhen
tiqnawhere
tuntusawhy


At naut n'Iiqan kysin.
T'at naut n'Iikan kysin?
Ti naut kysin?
Tr naut n'Iikan?

Quqaat at ruut n arsantu t Ati n Iiqan naasqutna n ksiisahqaunas
quqaat
yesterday
0Unknown code-at
3-PERF
yr-t
give-NMZ

n
ADV
∅-arsan=tu
3-look.at=foot
t -Ati
M-Ati
n-Iiqan
F-Iiqan

0-naasqutna
INDEF-chicken
n
in
k-siisahqaunas
DEF-barn

Yesterday John sneakily gave a chicken to Mary in the barn.

At ruut t Ati n Iiqan naasqutna
0Unknown code-at
3-PERF
yr-t
give-NMZ

t -Ati
M-Ati
n-Iiqan
F-Iiqan

0-naasqutna
INDEF-chicken

John gave Mary a chicken

At untuut t Ati naasqutna su n Iiqan
0Unknown code-at
3-PERF
yr-t
give-NMZ

t -Ati
M-Ati
0Unknown code-naasqutna
INDEF-chicken
su
PREP
n-Iiqan
F-Iiqan

John gave a chicken to Mary

At iqruut N'Iiqan naasqutna t t'Ati
∅-at
3-PERF
iq-ruu-t
PAS-give-PFV

n-Iiqan
F-Iiqan
naasqutna
chicken
t
from
t -Ati
M-Ati

Mary was given a chicken by John

At iquntuut naasqutna t t'Ati su n'Iiqan
At iquntuut t t'Ati naasqutna su n Iiqan
∅-at
3-PFV
iq-un-ruu-t
PAS-ANTID-give-PFV

naasqutna
chicken
t
from
t -Ati
M-Ati
su
to
n-Iiqan
F-Iiqan

A chicken was given to Mary by John

At nunait t'Ati naasqutna
Ti ianunait su naasqutna?
Ti inunait t'Ati?
Ti ianunait t'Ati?

Sat ruut t'Isqai qunanka. Ati gave me a coconut.
Ats ruut t'Isqai qunanka. I gave Ati a coconut.
Ti siruut qunanka? who gave me a coconut?
Tist iaruut qunanka? who did i give a coconut?
Trst aiquntuut t'Ati? what did Ati give me?
Tr siruut t'Ati? What did Ati gave me?
Trst iaruut t'Ati? what did Ati gave me?

Tr iquntuut t t'Ati su n'Iiqan?
Ti iaruut naasqutna su n'Iiqan?
Ti iruut t'Ati naasqutna?

[top]Topic

This are prepossed, before the verb. This takes subject clitics. Pronouns take the suffix -har

Atist tUnkarank nurnahunt knaik.
3-PFV-PL=1.OBL D-Unkarank APPL-feed-PFV DEF-pig
Unkarank fed the pigs for me.

TUnkarank atistr nurnahunt knaik.
D-Unkarank=1.OBL=3M 3-PFV-PL APPL-feed-PFV DEF-pig
As for Unkarank, he fed the pigs for me

Knaik atist tUnkarank nurnahunt.
3-PFV-PL=1.OBL D-Unkarank APPL-feed-PFV DEF-pig
As for the pigs, Unkarank fed them

Sahar atist tUnkarank nurnahunt knaik.
1-TOP 3-PFV-PL=1.OBL D-Unkarank APPL-feed-PFV DEF-pig
As for me, Unkarank fed the pigs
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