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Tnaaq verbs
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This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 24 Mar 2017, 17:28.

[comments] Menu
1. Transitivity, voice and verb classes
2. Person
3. Number
4. Aspect
5. Mode and evidentiality
6. Imperatives
7. Negation

?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
The Tnaaqian verb inflects for person, number, transitivity, aspect, mode and polarity. The order of the morphology is as follows:
PERSON-MODE-TRANSITIVITY-STEM(ASPECT/POL)-PL-POL/ASP

[top]Transitivity, voice and verb classes

All verbs are marked according to the semantic role of the subject. Every verb belongs to a class, and according to that class different prefixes and changes in the root are used for that purpose. The verb class also chooses which aspect a verb can take.

Stative verbs
These verbs mainly code states, positions and locations. A lot of these verbs have the form CVVCV when used as a predicate. Often the second vowel is the same as the first. The verb agrees with the subject.
.kikKNhNkPNVRKTnKTVix
Iixut knatkr nunq kanhan kykaaka
∅-ii=xut
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-sit=ass
k-natkr
DEFDefinite
"the"
-girl
nunq
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
kanha-n
arm-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost
k-y-kaak=a
DEFDefinite
"the"
-ANIMUnknown code-tree=GENGenitive (case)
possessive

The girl is sitting on a branch of the tree.

The last vowel of verbs with the form CVVCV is dropped when the verb is used as an atribute in a noun phrase.
XiQRtSieKRiKs
Akruust qukistar quux
ak-ruu=st
IMPImperative (mood)
command
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-give=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
k-u-kistar
DEFDefinite
"the"
-INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-chair
quux
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-red.NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun

Give me the white chair.

When verbs of forms different than CVVCV are used in a NP they take a suffix -n for inherent qualities or permanent states.
.NTipRNTdpSeTFiU
Tuuhutkis qataitn ryqaatn
∅-tuuhu=tk=is
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-afraid=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=EMPHUnknown code
∅-qatai-tn
NDEFUnknown code-build-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.RESResultative (mood)
occurs as result of another action
rqat-n
tall-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun

He's afraid of tall buildings.

Stative verbs can't take the auxiliary verbs -at and -ihk, the perfective and inchoative respectively. The perfective is marked mostly by a suffix -t, but several verbs can have suppletive roots for this aspect. Inchoatives grammaticalized the verb ihk to a prefix, the difference can be seen in the clitic and afix order. Statives can't take the progressive n, neither. The imperfective form is used instead.

Stative verbs can be turned into a dynamic verb by a prefix tu- or ta-, according to the more or less control of the subject on the event. The causative forms of each imply indirect and direct causation.

Nuut qau riiq nynauq quqiinuta. A small dog was standing on the chair
At tunuut qau riiq nynauq quqiinuta. A small dog stood up on the chair.
At tanuut qau riiq nynauq quqiinuta. A small dog stood up on the chair (on command).
Atr atunuut qau riiq nynauq quqiinuta. S/he made the dog stand up on the chair (holding it).
Atr atanuut qau riiq nynauq quqiinuta. S/he made the dog stand up on the chair (on command)

Unaccusative verbs
These verbs are intransitive. Their subject is a patient and has no control on the event. The verb must agree with the subject.
NNMMfDPiUTx.
At tuuqtauhi nau naunyn.
∅-at ∅-tuuq-t=auhi
3-PFV
∅-tuuq-t=auhi
3-fall-PFV=just
nau
3.F.S.GEN
na-∅-un-n
F-3-grandparent/child-INAL

Her grandmother/granddaughter just fell.


This verbs have a perfective form with the suffix -t or suppletion, and they can't be with auxiliars at and ihk. They can occur with progressive n, though.

Unergative verbs
These are also intransitive. The subject is an agent, and has control over the activity. Verbs of movement are included in this class

Tutu kinququni qar ququtanhaih n kystauq sau?
Tu
QInterrogative
question
=foot
k-i-nqu-qun-i=tu
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-QInterrogative
question
-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
-go-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
qar
to
k-qutanhaih
DEFDefinite
"the"
-school
n
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
stauq
morning
∅-sasau?
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-every

Do you guys walk to school every morning?

The subject can be marked as having no control (a patient) with the suffix -t. This often implies indirect causation. Direct causation is marked with prefix ax-. The stative form is made with a combination of the progressive n and perfective -t. These verbs can combine with -at, ihk and n.

siNQTAStNS.
Saa nqut austans
I'm coming back home.

siTAStNST.
Sat austanst
I was sent back home (by command).

siTxAStNST.
Sat axaustans
I was sent back home (someone took me).

siNQTAStNST
Saa nqut austanst
I have come back home.

siTAStNSHT
Sat austansyt (austans-h-t):
I was brought back home.

Transitive verbs
These verbs are transitive. The marked person on the verb is the patient. The agent is marked with a nominative clitic that is obligatory. The object clitic appears only when there's no NP present.

Atistn aahqutyt trastirkan sqant.
∅-at-i=st=n
3-PFV-PL=1.DAT=PL
aahqut-t
hunt-NMZ
t-ta-stirkan
DEF-M.AG-defend
∅-sqant
INDEF-boar

The soldier hunted some boars for us.

Transitive verbs can have auxiliaries at, ihk and n. There is a passive formed with prefix iq-, verbs with this prefix behave like unaccusatives.

Verb class morphology
The following are the verb classes that determine the way a verb will state the semantic role of the subject. Verbs also behave in different ways in their syntax.
Class-Semantic roleStativeUnaccusative (Patient)Unergative (Agent)CausativeApplicative
Class A-n-t∅-ax-nuh-
Class Pn-∅-a-si-nur-
Clas S∅-ta-tu-ata-/atu-nur-
Class T-tn∅-a-us-nuh-


Here are some examples of the verb classes.

Class P tuuq: fall
Unaccusative: tuuq (fall by accident)
Unergative: atuuq (to fall on purpose)
Stative: ntuuq (to be fallen)
Causative: ustuuq to fell

Class A

Class T:
asty: to taste
iqasty: to be tasted
axasty: to taste things (antipassive)
qunasty: to taste (by accident)
astytn: to have been tasted
usasty: to make sb taste (causative)

At ihksuatuuqut Ta Sirauni hyyxaini
∅-at
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
∅-ihk-su-a-tuuq-t
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-ANDAndative (case)
'towards'
-over-UNACCUnaccusative (voice)
voice that signals an accusative subject
-fall-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
ta-Sirauni
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-Sirauni
∅-hyyxaini
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-sand

Sirauni threw himself on the sand

Tuuqtauhi nau naunyn.
∅-tuuq-t=auhi
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-fall-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
=just
nau
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.FFeminine gender (gender)
feminine or female
.SWind element (gender/class).GENGenitive (case)
possessive
na-un-n
FFeminine gender (gender)
feminine or female
-grandparent/child-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Her grandmother/granddaughter just fell.

Ntuuq quhqyys qunahqna
∅-n-tuuq
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-STATStative (case)
attribute assignment
-fall
ku-hqyys
DEFDefinite
"the"
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-palm
k-unahq=na
DEFDefinite
"the"
-park=INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive

The palm tree of the park is fallen

[top]Person

Person is marked by a prefix prefixes:
,
FirstSecondThird
s- k-∅-

Only one argument can be marked in the verb. In intransitive verbs the subject is the marked argument. In transitive verbs it is the patient and it is the recipient in ditransitives, this means the language is ergative and has primary object in person inflection.

Several ways are used to change the verb class (see above). There are some others that are used for this purpose and add or remove an argument to the verb. These are the causative, applicative and passive prefixes and the reflexive and reciprocal clitics.

The following examples show how person and voice marking work together:
xain p be cleaned, prepared, ready (inanimate)
nxain s be clean (animate)
anxain nau a clean oneself, take a bath
usxain *p+a* bathe sb.
nurxain- p+b be cleaned, prepared for sb
nurusxain- *p+a*+b bathe for sb
iqusxain- *p(+a)* be bathed by, be cleaned by (no agent deletion).
iqnurxain- p (+b) be cleaned for sb.
iqnurusxain- *p(+a)*+b be bathed for sb.

Anauq knaikntau us qutaasi nasnqina.
The backyard is ready for my daughter's party.
Nxain nasnqin urs qutaasi.
My daughter is ready for her party.
Sanxaxannau iq stiiktaq.
I usually bathe with cold water.
Usxan na uanqinrs q iriih.
She bathes the puppy
Saxa n nurxain taasi su nasnqin.
We're preparing a party for my daughter.

[top]Number

The verbs can have a suffix for plural. The most common is -i, whici is used for the plural of intransitive verbs and plural objects. Another suffix, -ah, is used for plural subjects (if the object is singular).

Tiik kykuuna xynyra
∅-tiik
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-bite
k-kuuna
DEFDefinite
"the"
-horse
xynyra
apple

The horse bites an apple

Tiiki kykuuna xynyra
∅-tiik-i
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-bite-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
k-kuuna
DEFDefinite
"the"
-horse
xynyra
apple

The horse(s) bite(s) some apples

Tiikah kykuuna xynyra
∅-tiik-ah
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-bite-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SUBJUnknown code
k-kuuna
DEFDefinite
"the"
-horse
xynyra
apple

The horses bite an apple

[top]Aspect

Aspect is marked by different processes. There are partial reduplications, affixation and some auxiliary verbs.

Completive
Completive is used to talk about finished events. It is marked by a suffix -t for intransitive verbs, and the auxiliary verb -at, negative -atan (to go) for transitives. The auxiliary verb is inflected and the main verb requires suffix -t.
Sati ryt kau tanqn nartn.
s-at-i
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-COMPComparative
e.g. 'better'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-t
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
kau
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.POSSPossessive (case)
= GEN
tanq-n
father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost
nar-tn
eat-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action

Your father gave us some food

Cesative
This form is made with the auxiliary at, but the main verb doesn't get a suffix -t. It can be used with any type of verb.
This conjugation refers to processes about to be finished.


Habitual
Habitual is used to refer to events that happen frecuently. Habitual is marked by reduplication of the first syllable of the root. It can be used with both transitive and intransitive verbs:
Sytauq sytauq nanar nasiisakn
sytauq sytauq
every morning
∅-na-nar
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
-run
na-s-iisak-n
FFeminine gender (gender)
feminine or female
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-sibling-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

My sister runs every morning

Iterative-distributive
Iterative is used for activities and avents that are repeated or have happened before. It is maked by reduplicating the last VC(C) of the stem if it ends with a consonant, or with a suffix -xV if it ends with a vowel.

Inchoative
Inchoative is used to talk about events that are starting and for things that are about to start (near future). It is marked by the auxiliary verb -ihk (negative -ahkin), to come. The main verb gets suffix -t only if the event has already begun.
Ihk siiqsaqut
ihk
INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
siiqsaq-t
rain-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun

It's beginning to rain.

Ihk siiqsaq
ihk
INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
siiqsaq-t
rain

It's going to rain soon

Progressive
The present progressive is used for events that are currently happening and last for a while. It is not used with stative verbs. The particle n is prepossed to the verb, and receives all the clitics associated.

Continuous
The continuous is used for current states or the result of events (resultative). It is marked by the same preffix n- of the progressive, but the verb also takes suffix -t. It is not used with stative verbs.

There are some prefixes to link the temporality of serial verb constructions, one for simultaneity and the other one for secuence. A thid one for inverse secuence is not used in common speech.



[top]Mode and evidentiality

Tnaaq verbs can be marked for irrealis and interrogative. The last two are marked with the same form in most of verbs, but there are some that retain a different form for the irrealis, usually with a prefix u-. The prefix used with most verbs is i-, and it's very regular and used with all the verb classes.

There are a series of prefixes (most of them were formerly verbs) thatadd a modal meaning to the verb. They are not restricted to any verb class, but change the verb into a class A, this change in the verb alignment makes a change in the person marking. These prefixes actually are sets of two, cause the irrealis.interrogative may be between each part.

n*ta- can (permanently able)
n*tak-can't (idem able)

This prefixes can combine with a clitic to indicate epistemic modality. There are two values:
=tqai: posibilidad ligera (+ nta)
=xyyk: posibilidad fuerte (+ nta)

h*qa-can (current situation)
h*qak- can't (current)

nar- can (permiso)
nark- can't (permiso)


▼ Examples

present, realis
Ristn nuuhit taknqan
∅-r-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-give-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father gives us some fruits.

negative present realis
Stristn nuuhit taknqan
∅-str-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-give.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father doesn't give us some fruits.

Ryristn nuuhit taknqan
∅-r-r-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
-give-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father usually gives us some fruits.

Stryristn nuuhit taknqan
∅-st-r-r-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
-give-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father usually doesn't give us some fruits.

Taknqan nystn r nuuhit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost
n=st=n
PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r
give
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit

Your father is giving us some fruits.

Taknqan nystn rak nuuhit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost
n=st=n
PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-ak
give-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit

Your father isn't giving us some fruits.

Atistn ryt nuuhit taknqan
∅-at-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-t
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father (just) gave us some fruits.

Atanistn ryt nuuhit taknqan
∅-atan-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-t
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father didn't (just) give us some fruits.

Ihkistn ryt nuuhit taknqan
∅-ihk-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-t
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father just started to give us some fruits.

Ahkinistn ryt nuuhit taknqan
∅-ahkin-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-t
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father didn't started to give us some fruits.

Ihkistn r nuuhit taknqan
∅-ihk-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r
give
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father is going to give us some fruits (in a moment)

Ahkinistn r nuuhit taknqan
∅-ahkin-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-∅
give
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father isn't going to give us some fruits (in a moment)

Tustn uuhki ryt nuuhit taknqan
tu=st=n
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-uuhk-i
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INTIntelligent (gender/class)
Sentient beings
.INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-t
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Did your father started giving us some fruits?

Tustn uahkini ryt nuuhit taknqan
tu=st=n
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-uahkin-i
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INTIntelligent (gender/class)
Sentient beings
.INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-t
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Didn't your father just started giving us some fruits?

Tustn uuhki r nuuhit taknqan
tu=st=n
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-uuhk-i
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r
give
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Is your father going to give us some fruits (in a moment)?

Tustn uahkini r nuuhit taknqan
tu=st=n
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-uahkin-i
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INTIntelligent (gender/class)
Sentient beings
.INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-∅
give
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Isn't your father going to give us some fruits (in a moment)

Iristn nuuhit taknqan
∅-i-r-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-give-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father will give us some fruits (later)

Stiristn nuuhit taknqan
∅-st-i-r-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-give-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father won't give us some fruits (later)

Tustn iri nuuhit taknqan?
tu=st=n
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-i-r-i
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INTIntelligent (gender/class)
Sentient beings
-give-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Will/Does your father give us some fruits.

Tustn stiri nuuhit taknqan?
tu=st=n
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-st-i-r-i
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-INTIntelligent (gender/class)
Sentient beings
-give-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Won't/Doesn't your father give us some fruits.

Rytistn nuuhit taknqan
∅-rt-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-give.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father gave us some fruits (long ago)

Strytistn nuuhit taknqan
∅-st-rt-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-give.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Your father didn't give us some fruits (long ago)

Tustn irit nuuhit taknqan
tu=st=n
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-i-r-i-t
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INTIntelligent (gender/class)
Sentient beings
-give-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Did your father give us some fruits (long ago)

Stirtistn nuuhit taknqan
∅-st-i-rt-i=st=n
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-INTIntelligent (gender/class)
Sentient beings
-give.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Didn't your father give us some fruits (long ago)

Tustn uati ryt nuuhit taknqan
tu=st=n
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-uat-i
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INTIntelligent (gender/class)
Sentient beings
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-t
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Did father (just) give us some fruits.

Tustn uatani ryt nuuhit taknqan
tu=st=n
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; beneficiary
=PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
∅-uatan-i
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-INTIntelligent (gender/class)
Sentient beings
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
r-t
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
∅-nuuhit
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
-fruit
ta-k-nqa-n
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-father-INALInalienable
thing that can't be gained or lost

Didn't your father (just) give us some fruits.

Evidentiality is marked with some second position clitics.


[top]Imperatives

There is a special marker for imperative, a-. This goes before the second person prefix. There is also a negative form, ai-. The person marked is the agent, but the verb plural remains patient-aligned.

Aksutyyti kankausan uu nunq quqiinuta.
IMPImperative (mood)
command
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-peel-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.PATPatient (role)
recipient or target of event/action
DEFDefinite
"the"
-orange DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=on DEFDefinite
"the"
=table
Peel those oranges on the table.

Aksqaxatanak quqiinuta uu n kyquut.
IMPImperative (mood)
command
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-bring-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.AGUnknown code=in DEFDefinite
"the"
=table DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
DEFDefinite
"the"
-house
You guys bring that table to the house.

There is also a prefix taa- used as an hortative. This prefix taa- is only first person, so the agent is also marked here.

Let's all go to the lobby to get ourselves a treat.
HORTHortative (mood)
'let's...'
-go-ANDAndative (case)
'towards'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
to DEFDefinite
"the"
-lobby CMPComplementiser
[clause] that [clause]
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-APLUnknown code-<IRRIrrealis
mood
>take-VENVenitive (case)
coming 'towards'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
treat
Tanqunihki su knustaiquta q snusniquuqatinau nartntu.

When this prefix is used with irrealis/interrogative i- it has a permisive meaning. In this case the verb returns to a ergative alignment, so the person marked is the patient. The first person is not marked, though.

Can we/they go to the lobby to get our/themselves a treat?
HORTHortative (mood)
'let's...'
-<INTERUnknown code>go-ANDAndative (case)
'towards'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
to DEFDefinite
"the"
-lobby CMPComplementiser
[clause] that [clause]
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
/3-APLUnknown code-<IRRIrrealis
mood
>take-VENVenitive (case)
coming 'towards'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
treat
Taniqunihki su knustaiquta q s/nusniquuqatinau nartntu?

The verb ruu is used as a mild imperative. The main verb retains all the inflection and has an irrealis prefix. The marked person is the patient.

Ruukunqut aixi n unyystat.
give=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
=on=butt 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-sit.IRRIrrealis
mood
-DISTRDistributive (case)
'each', 'per'
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
seat
Please sit on your seats.

The negative imperative ai- is considered rude in Rasaata. The form with ruu and a negative main verb is used instead. This prefix is more common in Haustrqiiq.

Aikrqurnak n ruu nat iihksaaka quqai.
IMPImperative (mood)
command
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-cross=in LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
street until 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-become-red DEFDefinite
"the"
-light
Don't cross the street until the light is red.

Ruu kriquraknak n ruu nat ihksaaka quqai.
give 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-<IRRIrrealis
mood
>cross-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
=in LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
street until 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-become-red DEFDefinite
"the"
-light
Don't cross the street until the light is red.

[top]Negation


Negation is marked by several suffixes. Some verbs are suppletive, including the auxiliary verbs. The suffix -una comes before the perfective, the suffix -ak comes after.

ClassSuffix
S, P-una
A, T-ak


Some verbs take both suffixes with a change in meaning. -una is used for permanent qualities and changes the verb to class S, and -ak is used for unique events and doesn't change the verbs' class:

sanak: don't/can't see
sanuna: to be blind
qatak: don't/can't hear
qatuna: be deaf
nqunak tu: don't/can't walk
nqununa tu: paraplegic
nxainak: unclean
nxainuna: evil
Comments (2)
[link] [quote] 04-Sep-15 20:57
ȦA Priori Conlangers
For those whose languages are as original as them!
 xroooox  
@bananahead You can ask me whatever you want
[link] [quote] 12-Aug-15 19:15
Conlanger
CWS Conlanger
 bananahead
Complicated hard to understand 😅
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