The Shikathi Number System

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*numbers, numerals, pluralizers, decimals, fractions*

*This*

**public**article was written by**Vulcanman**, and last updated on 11 Jul 2017, 23:31.[comments] shknumberscardinalsordinalsfractionsdecimalsexponentspluralisers

1. Adpositions

12. Shikathi Idioms

13. Shikathi Numbers

15. Soranthi Verbs

19. Verbs

[top]Numeric System at a Glance

The Shikathi numeric system is a base 10 system (um... I think). It’s composed of 3 different classes of numerals.

**Core Class**,

**Lower Class**, and

**Upper Class**.

*Background information:*

The names of the classes have nothing to do with any societal structure. Rather they represent how and where the corresponding numerals are written in Shikathi skript. The core glyph is written in the center with the lower glyphs surrounding the core and the upper glyphs surrounding the lower. This article will not go into how to write the numeral itself, but rather how to say it. To illustrate this, I'll include the English numbers with the words written out along with the actual numerals in parenthesis.

The names of the classes have nothing to do with any societal structure. Rather they represent how and where the corresponding numerals are written in Shikathi skript. The core glyph is written in the center with the lower glyphs surrounding the core and the upper glyphs surrounding the lower. This article will not go into how to write the numeral itself, but rather how to say it. To illustrate this, I'll include the English numbers with the words written out along with the actual numerals in parenthesis.

Below is a list of the numerals within each class:

Core Class | Lower Class | Upper Class | Alternate Upper Class | |
---|---|---|---|---|

value = x*1 or x*10 | value = x*1 | value = x*100 | value = x*100 | |

zero | harī | ran (rān) | hara | harī |

one | zen (zyn)(zn) | tun (tyn)(tn) | bara | barī |

two | fir | vek (vyk)(vk) | kera | kerī |

three | lor (lyr)(lr) | ve (vē)(vī) | mara | marī |

four | bet | ky (ki) | tlara (tylara)(tilara) | tlarī (tylarī)(tilarī) |

five | ghīm (ghym)(ghm) | ghūm (ghym)(ghm) | gara | garī |

six | tae (te) | mīn | fera | ferī |

seven | iā (īa) | ven (vyn)(vn) | sera | serī |

eight | la | hor (hyr) | indra | indrī |

nine | dim (dym)(dm) | zam(zym)(zm) | era (iera) | erī (ierī) |

The core numerals may be used for single digit figures. Shikathi numerals function like adjectives and as such, are placed after the nouns they modify.

*Five dogs*(5 is a single digit number and so we will use the core numeral “ghīm”)

**arlhäthky ghīm**

*Nine people*

**drūmky dim**

You'll notice that the word for

*dogs*(

**arlhäthky**) and

*people*(

**drūmky**) are in the plural with the suffix

**-ky**. This is grammatically correct. However, it is also common to see the singular version of these words followed by the number as it is understood that the word is inherently plural. And so the following is not only possible, it is more common:

*Five dogs*

**arlhäth ghīm**

*Nine people*

**drūm dim**

[top]Double Digit Numbers

If we were to represent the value of the core numeral in a formula, we could say that the core numerals have the value of x*1 only if we’re sticking with single digit numbers. That is only if no lower class numeral is needed.

If we move up to any multiple digit numbers, we bring in the need for lower class numerals that assume the x*1 value. The core numeral value shifts to x*10.

In any number, the numerical sequence is always:

**core+lower+upper**

*Fifteen dogs*

**arlhäthky zenghym**

core numeral = zen (value = 1*10 )

lower numeral = ghīm (value = 5*1)

*Twenty nine people*

**drūmky firzam**

core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)

lower numeral = zam (value = 9*1)

The Shikathi system does not usually express leading zeroes. It’s not that it can’t it’s just something that’s not done except in scientific, academic, or elite circles.

*Nine (09)*(academic / elite register)

**haryzam**or

**harzm**

core numeral = harī (value = 0*10)

lower numeral = zam (value = 9*1)

*Nine (09)*(neutral register:)

**dim**

Leading zero not expressed (there's no need for a lower class numeral and so the core numeral reverts back to the x*1 formula)

core numeral = dim (value = 9*1)

[top]Triple Digit Numbers

The last set of Shikathi numerals are upper class numerals and it’s formula is x*100. Remember that in any number, the numerical sequence is always:

**core+lower+upper**

*One hundred fifty (150) dogs*

**arlhäthky ghymrānbara**

core numeral = ghīm (value = 5*10)

lower numeral = ran (value = 0*1)

upper numeral = bara (value = 1*100)

*Two hundred ninty two people (292)*

**drūmky dymvekera**(contracted form of “

**dymvekkera**”)

core numeral = dim (value = 9*10)

lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)

upper numeral = kera (value = 2*100)

Note:

**dymvekera**is not to be confused with:

**dymvēkera**(or alternatively:

**dymvīkera**) = two hundred ninty three (293)

core numeral = dim (value = 9*10)

lower numeral = vē / vī (value = 3*1)

upper numeral = kera (value = 2*100)

or

**dymvekiera**= nine hundred ninety two (992)

core numeral = dim (value = 9*10)

lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)

upper numeral = iera (value = 9*100)

[top]Core Numerals with Upper Numerals (Omitting Lower Numerals)

For numbers like: 101, 203, and 608, where the tens digit is a zero, Shikathi will not express the zero. Instead, the lower class numeral is omitted and the core numeral reverts back to the x*1 formula. The upper class numeral is used as normal.

*One hundred one (101) dogs*(shame I don't have a word for Dalmatians)

**arlhäthky zenbara**

core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

upper numeral = bara (value = 1*100)

*Two hundred three (203) people*

**drūmky lorkera**

core numeral = lor (value = 3*1)

upper numeral = kera (value = 2*100)

[top]Numbers 1,000 and Greater

Each set of numerals (core+lower+upper) is considered to be a single

*phrase*. Numbers 1,000 and greater are made up of multiple phrases. Shikathi numeric phrases are analogous to our groupings of 3 digits for large numbers.

For example: the number 1,000 is made up of two Shikathi numeric phrases (1) and (000)

*One thousand (1,000)*

**zen harī**(

**Important note:**although "

**zen**" does mean "one", "

**harī**" does not mean "thousand" but rather it indicates "0*100" for that phrase and ultimately means "zero".)

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 2:__Alternate upper numeral = harī (value = 0*100)

Also I should point out here that the alternate form

**harī**is used instead of

**hara**so as not to confuse

**zenhara**(001) for

**zen hara**(1,000) both pronounced exactly the same. For this number, it is not so important as Shikathi tends not to express leading zeroes. However this anomaly can be extremely confusing for other numbers like

**zenbara**(101) and

**zen bara**(1,100). For this reason all base hundreds end in

**ī**and so we get

**zenbara**(101) vs.

**zen barī**(1,100).

As mentioned before, leading zeroes within a phrase tend not to be expressed and so we have the following example:

*One thousand one (1,001)*

**zen zen**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 2:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

Although academics and elites may use:

**zen zenhara**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 2:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 2:__upper numeral = hara (value = 0*100)

Some additional examples of higher numbers:

*Twelve thousand four hundred twenty one (12,421)*

**zenvyk firtuntlara**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*10)

__Phrase 1:__lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)

__Phrase 2:__core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)

__Phrase 2:__lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 2:__upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)

*Eight hundred twelve thousand four hundred twenty one (812,421)*

**zenvykindra firtuntlara**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*10)

__Phrase 1:__lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)

__Phrase 1:__upper numeral = indra (value = 8*100)

__Phrase 2:__core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)

__Phrase 2:__lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 2:__upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)

*One million eight hundred twelve thousand four hundred twenty one (1,812,421)*

**zen zenvykindra firtuntlara**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 2:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*10)

__Phrase 2:__lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)

__Phrase 2:__upper numeral = indra (value = 8*100)

__Phrase 3:__core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)

__Phrase 3:__lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 3:__upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)

[top]Pluralizers

Remember that core numerals are used for single digit numbers and so:

*Five dogs.*=

**arlhäthky ghīm**

*Nine people.*=

**drūmky dim**

However, the Shikathi people may use

**pluralizers**instead of the core numerals. Pluralizers are suffixes that are also derived from the Old Shikathi numeric system.

The pluralizers are as follows:

Pluralizer | |
---|---|

general | -ky (-ki) |

dual | -kō |

trial | -kā |

quadral | -kī |

qty of five | -kū |

qty of six | -kē |

qty of seven | -kyn (-kn) |

qty of eight | -kae |

qty of nine | -kyt (-kt) |

And so:

**arlhäthky ghīm**can be

**arlhäthkū**.

**drūmky dim**can be

**drūmkyt**.

As we'll see in the next sections, pluralizers are also used in conjunction with the numerical system to indicate repetitive numeric phrases as well as exponential numbers.

[top]Pluralizers and Repetitive Numeric Sequences

So we’ve covered how Shikathi numbers are composed of up to three sets of numerals. These numerals combine to create a numeric phrase. If a phrase repeats itself, a pluralizer is affixed to the phrase

__of that repetition__. The pluralizer to use is determined by how many times the phrase is repeated.

Some examples:

*four hundred twenty one thousand four hundred twenty one (421,421)*

**firtuntlarakō**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)

__Phrase 1:__lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 1:__upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)

Pluralizer: kō (value = qty of 2)

*four hundred twenty one million four hundred twenty one thousand (421,421,000)*

**firtuntlarakō harī**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)

__Phrase 1:__lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 1:__upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)

Pluralizer: kō (value = 2)

__Phrase 2:__upper numeral = harī (value = 0*100)

*four hundred twenty one quintillion four hundred twenty one quadrillion and one (421,421,000,000,000,000,001)*

**firtuntlarakō harykī zen**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)

__Phrase 1:__lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 1:__upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)

Pluralizer: kō (value = 2)

__Phrase 2:__upper numeral = harī (value = 0*100)

Pluralizer: kī (value = 4)

__Phrase 3:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

[top]Pluralizers as Exponents

Shikathi also uses the pluralizer to denote an exponential value.

Pluralizer | |
---|---|

used for the powers of 10 through 19 | -ky (-ki) |

squared | -kō |

cubed | -kā |

to the fourth | -kī |

to the fifth | -kū |

to the sixth | -kē |

to the seventh | -kyn (-kn) |

to the eighth | -kae |

to the ninth | -kyt (-kt) |

Examples:

10

^{1}=

**zenran**

*(there is no way to say X to the first power in Shikathi)*

10

^{2}=

**zenrankō**but...

**barī**(100) is more common to say

10

^{3}=

**zenrankā**but...

**zen harī**(1,000) is more common to say

10

^{4}=

**zenrankī**but...

**zenran harī**(10,000) is more common to say

10

^{5}=

**zenrankū**but..

**barī harī**(100,000) is more common to say

10

^{6}=

**zenrankē**but…

**zen harīkō**(1,000,000) is more common to say

10

^{6}=

**zenrānkn**but…

**zenran harīkō**(10,000,000) is more common to say

10

^{8}=

**zenrankae**but…

**barī harīkō**(100,000,000) is more common to say

10

^{9}=

**zenrānkyt**but…

**zen harīkā**(1,000,000,000) is more common to say

**Exponential values 10 and above**

For exponential values 10 and above, the pluralizers become augmented with the augmentative suffix

**-ysh / -yzh**(contracted), and most will detach from the main number. The resulting phrase is then contracted with another set of core numerals (for 2 digit powers) and upper numerals (for 3 digit powers). For the powers of 10-19, use the generic pluralizer

**-ky- / -ki-**.

10

^{10}

**zenrānkysh**(but…

**senran harykā**is more common to say)

10

^{20}

**zenrankōzh**

10

^{30}

**zenrankāzh**

10

^{11}

**zenrān kyshen**

10

^{21}

**zenran kōzhn**

10

^{31}

**zenran kāzhn**

10

^{100}=

**zenran kishara**

10

^{101}=

**zenrān kysharāzn**

10

^{110}=

**zenran kisharazenran**

**Note:**although the standard numeric order is core+lower+upper, the order of the exponential value is DPLDefinite Plural (number)

with exact numbers/quantites+AUGAugmentative

a bigger, greater, stronger etc. version+upper+core+lower

[top]Positive and Negative Numbers

Use the affix

**tō**to indicate a positive or negative number.

As a prefix, it indicates a positive number (only used for emphases.)

**zenky**= fourteen

**= positive fourteen (**

__tō__zenky^{+}14)

As a suffix, it indicates a negative number.

**zenky**(

__tō__**zenk**) = negative fourteen (

__tō__^{-}14)

As a circumfix, it indicates a positive and negative number.

**= positive and negative fourteen (**

__tō__zenky__tō__^{+/-}14)

It's important to note that the affixes are attached to a sequence of phrases and doesn't need to be attached to each and every phrase in a number.

**= positive ten thousand (**

__tō__zenran harī^{+}10,000)

**zenran harī**= negative ten thousand (

__tō__^{-}10,000)

**= positive and negative ten thousand (**

__tō__zenran harī__tō__^{+/-}10,000)

[top]Decimals

Numbers less than whole are usually represented as decimals. Just like with whole numbers, the decimal system incorporates the 3 different classes of numerals.

**Core Class, Lower Class, and Upper Class**.

*Background information:*

In writing the decimal system, the core class actually uses a different set of glyphs but they are still considered core. The lower glyphs are exactly the same as those for whole numbers. While the upper glyphs are usually the same, the alternate upper glyphs are different from their whole number counterparts.

In writing the decimal system, the core class actually uses a different set of glyphs but they are still considered core. The lower glyphs are exactly the same as those for whole numbers. While the upper glyphs are usually the same, the alternate upper glyphs are different from their whole number counterparts.

Below is the list of numerals within each class and their decimal values. You’ll see that the core and upper class numerals are prefixed with “

**gy**”, “

**ge**”, “

**gē**”, or “

**gi**”. This is the indicator of a number less than whole. The prefix will never be attached to lower class numerals.

Core Class | Lower Class | Upper Class | Alternate Upper Class | |
---|---|---|---|---|

value = x/10 or x/100) | value = x/10 | value = x/1000 | value = x/1000 | |

zero | gyharī (gyhary) | ran (rān) | hara | gyharī or harī |

one | gyzen (gezyn) | tun (tyn)(tn) | bara | gybarī or barī |

two | gyfir (gefyr) | vek (vyk)(vk) | kera | gykerī or kerī |

three | gylor (gelyr) | ve (vē)(vī) | mara | gymarī or marī |

four | gybet (gebyt) | ky (ki) | tlara (tylara)(tilara) | gytlarī (gytylarī) or tlarī (tylarī)(tilarī) |

five | gyghīm (geghym) | ghūm (ghym)(ghm) | gara | gygarī or garī |

six | gytae (gete) | mīn | fera | gyferī or ferī |

seven | geā (gēa) | ven (vyn)(vn) | sera | gyserī or serī |

eight | gylā (gela) | hor (hyr) | indra | gēindrī or indrī |

nine | gydim (gedym) | zam(zym)(zm) | era (iera) | gierī or erī (ierī) |

The rules for putting together decimal numbers are pretty much the same as outlined above for whole numbers. The difference is that instead of the formulas:

Core = x*1 or x*10

Lower = x*1

Upper = x*100

We now have:

Core = x/10 or x/100

Lower = x/10

Upper = x/1000

**Single Digit Examples**Just like with whole numbers, use the core numeral for single digits. There is no leading zero in Shikathi decimals.

*Five tenths (0.5) water*

**sähar geghm.**

*Nine tenths (0.9) water*

**sähar gedm**

**Double Digit Examples**Again, just like with whole numbers, with double digits, the core value will shift. This time from x/10 to x/100 with the lower numeral taking the value of x/10. The numerical sequence is

__still__: core+lower+upper.

*Fifteen hundredths (0.15) water*

**sähar gyghīmtn**

core numeral = gyghīm (value = 5/100)

lower numeral = tun (value = 1/10)

*Ninety two hundredths (0.92) water*

**sähar gyfirzm**

Core numeral = gyfir (value = 2/100)

Lower numeral = zam (value = 9/10)

Similar to Shikathi not expressing leading zeroes on the whole side, it does not express trailing zeroes on the decimal side except in very rare cases.

*Ninety hundredths (0.90) (academic / elite register)*

**gyharyzam or gyharzm**

Core numeral = gyharī (value = 0/100)

Lower numeral = zam (value = 9/10)

*Ninety hundredths (0.90) or Nine tenths (0.9) (neutral register)*

**gedm**

**Triple Digit Examples***One hundred fifty six thousandths (0.156) water*

**sähar geghymtunfera**

Core numeral = geghym (value = 5/100)

Lower numeral = tun (value = 1/10)

Upper numeral = fera (value = 6/1000)

*Nine hundred twenty two thousandths (0.922) water*

**sähar gefirzāmkera**

Core numeral = gefir (value = 2/100)

Lower numeral = zam (value = 9/10)

Upper numeral = kera (value = 2/1000)

__Examples of Decimals Ten-Thousandths and Beyond__Remember that a set of numerals (core+lower+upper) is considered to be a

*numerical phrase*. Unlike Earth conventions, this grouping continues into the decimal range. So for the number: one ten-thousandths (0.0001), it would be like (0.000,1) in Shikathi notation, a number of two numerical phrases.

*One ten-thousandths (0.0001)*

**gezn harī**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = gezn (value = 1/10)

__Phrase 2:__Alternate Upper numeral = harī (value = 0/1000)

*Twelve thousand four hundred twenty one hundred-thousandths (0.12421) (um… I think that’s how you say that in English)*

**gyzenvk firtuntlara**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = gyzen (value = 1/100)

__Phrase 1:__lower numeral = vek (value = 2/10)

__Phrase 2:__core numeral = fir (value = 2/100)

__Phrase 2:__lower numeral = tun (value = 1/10)

__Phrase 2:__upper numeral = tlara (value = 4/1000)

__Whole Numbers with Decimals__There’s not really much difference in how the numerals are put together. Numerals to the left of the decimal make up their own phrases as does numerals to the right.

*One and five tenths (1.5)*

**zen gyghīm**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

__Phrase 2:__core numeral = gyghīm (value = 5/10)

*Three and fourteen thousand one hundred fifty nine hundred-thousandths (3.14159)*

**lor gedimghm bytunbara**

__Phrase 1:__core numeral = lor (value 3*1)

__Phrase 2:__core numeral = dim (value 9/100)

__Phrase 2:__lower numeral = ghym (value 5/10)

__Phrase 3:__core numeral = bet (value = 4/100)

__Phrase 3:__lower numeral = tun (value = 1/10)

__Phrase 3:__upper numeral = bara (value = 1/1000)

__Final Note About Decimal Numerical Phrases and Their Placement:__It's important to note that Shikathi numerical phrases on the decimal side are arranged in a completely reversed order compared to that of Earth standards.

For example if we were to directly translate the Shikathi version of 3.14159 back into our own system without taking this into account,

**lor**, we would get 3.59141 which is a totally incorrect translation.

_{(3)}gedimghm_{(0.59)}bytunbara_{(141)}When converting any Shikathi number into Earth standards, we have to remember to isolate the decimal phrases from the whole phrases. Once isolated, reverse the order of the decimal phrases and reposition the decimal. To identify the decimal phrases, look for the phrase that contains the "

**gy/ge**" marker. Any phrase after that will also be considered a decimal phrase.

For example you stumble onto a Shikathi ship and you see this number:

**ghmhor firtuntylara lazāmgara gytae iāghymindra lorvekgara**. What is it?

▼ Step 1: Decipher the phrases

**ghmhor**

_{(58)}firtuntylara_{(421)}lazāmgara_{(589)}gytae_{(0.6)}iāghymindra_{(578)}lorvekgara_{(235)}▼ Step 2: Isolate the decimal phrases

**ghmhor**

_{(58)}firtuntylara_{(421)}lazāmgara_{(589)}**gytae**

_{(0.6)}iāghymindra_{(578)}lorvekgara_{(235)}▼ Step 3: Reverse the order of the decimal phrases (not the numerals)

**ghmhor**

_{(58)}firtuntylara_{(421)}lazāmgara_{(589)}**lorvekgara**

_{(235)}iāghymindra_{(578)}gytae_{(0.6)}▼ Step 4: Reposition the decimal based on Earth standards

Fifty eight million four hundred twenty one thousand five hundred eighty nine and two million three hundred fifty five thousand seven hundred eighty six ten-millionths (58,421,589.2355786)

[top]Fractions

First and foremost, Shikathi does not have a way to represent fractions numerically (read: Shikathi’s creator can’t think of a cool way to incorporate fractions using it's current numerical script not to mention that fractions hurt the creator’s head too much!) .

Although fractions can't be represented numerically, they are recognized in Shikathi society and may be written out. To do this, use the suffix

**-shpa**affixed to a number to represent the denominator.

*Background information:*

**-shpa**is an alternate Genitive ending used in the Old Shikathi case system.Here are some examples:

*Five tenths (5/10)*

**ghīm zenrān**(literally: five belonging to ten)

__shpa__*Fifteen hundredths (15/100)*

**zenghm harīshpa**(fifteen belonging to one hundred)

*Six thirteenths (6/13)*

**tae zenvē**(six belonging to thirteen)

__shpa__*Twenty four eightieths (24/80)*

**firky larān**(twenty-four belonging to eighty)

__shpa__[top]Ordinals and Adjectivized Decimals

**Ordinals**

To create ordinal numbers in Shikathi, simply tag on the adjective marker

**-thī / -ðī**to any number. All previous rules for putting together numbers apply.

For example:

**zen**= first

__thī__**fir**= second

__thī__**lor**= third

__thī__...etc.

Some examples for larger numbers:

**barī**= hundredth

__ðī__**zen harī**= thousandth

__ðī__**zen harykō**= millionth

__ðī__...etc.

**Adjectivized Decimals**

Other adjectivized numbers exist that are not considered "ordinals" by English standards but are categorized in the same grammatical group by Shikathi standards. For example the word "

*half*" is derived from the number

**geghm**(0.5), and is the adjectivized number (for lack of a better term)

**geghim**.

__thī__Other words like this include:

**gelyrvē**= one third (from

__ðī__**gylorve**= 0.33)

**gēatun**= one sixth (from

__thī__**geātn**= 0.17)

**gēamin**= two thirds (from

__thī__**gēamīn**= 0.67)

**geghymvek**= one forth / quartered (from

__thī__**geghimvyk**= 0.25)

**geghymven**= three fourths / three-quartered (from

__thī__**geghimvn**= 0.75)

This is an alternative way to represent some fractions however it's important to remember that these are

__adjectives__. Unlike the number

**zen lor**(1/3) for example,

__shpa__**gelyrvē**is an adjective describing one third of something. Here's an example of the difference.

__ðī__*A third of the people are male.*

**drūmky gelyrvē**

__ðī__drāgarōky.person-PLPlural (number)

more than one/few one_third-ADJAdjectival male-PLPlural (number)

more than one/few.

vs.

*One third is less than two thirds.*

**zen lorshpa vymomyn fir lyrshpākys.**(literally: One of three is less of a collection than two of three.)

one three-GENGenitive (case)

possessive mass-COMPComparative

e.g. 'better'-DIMDiminutive

a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version two three-GENGenitive (case)

possessive-than.

**Nominalization of Adjectivized Numbers**

It seems strange to turn a noun into an adjective just to turn it back into a noun again but this happens often in Shikathi. It happens with numbers too. In the case with ordinals, the meaning becomes

*"the X one"*where "X" is the ordinal number. To nominalize any adjective, use the suffix

**-yth**.

For example:

**zen**= number one >

**zenthī**= first >

**zen**= the first one

__yth__**fir**= number two >

**firthī**= second >

**fir**= the second one

__yth__**lor**= number three >

**lorthī**= third >

**lor**= the third one

__yth__Some examples for larger numbers:

**barī**= the hundredth one

__yth__**zen harī**= the thousandth one

__yth__**zen harykō**= the millionth one

__yth__[top]Adverbial Ordinals and Decimals

**Ordinals**

In addition to being an adjective marker,

**-thī / -ðī**doubles as an adverb marker. To tell the difference, rather than following the noun, adverbs will always follow the verbs they modify. Here is an example:

__Adjectival Ordinal__

*The*

__first__person walked in.**drūm**

__zenthī__benghin draetorakām.*person one-ADJAdjectival movement inwards-PASTPast Tense (tense)*

action occurred before moment of speech-INTRIntransitive (valency)

has one argument

action occurred before moment of speech-INTRIntransitive (valency)

has one argument

__Adverbial Ordinal__

*The person walked in*(or)

__first__.*The person*

__first__walked in...**drūm benghin draetorakām**

__zenthī__.*person movement inwards-PSTPast (tense)*

action occurred before moment of speech-INTRIntransitive (valency)

has one argument one-ADVAdverbial

e.g. English '-ly'.

action occurred before moment of speech-INTRIntransitive (valency)

has one argument one-ADVAdverbial

e.g. English '-ly'.

**Adverbialized Decimals**

You will see adverbialized decimals following the same pattern. These take on the meaning of something happening or operating at a certain percentage. You will hear this a lot on Shikathi starships and space stations. Here are some examples.

__Adjectivized Decimal__

*Only*

__30%__of our shields are working.**sykätkus**

__gelorthī__īkrī tähraet akām.*shield three_tenths-ADJAdjectival only stimulus MIDMiddle voice (valency)*

subject is both agent and patient.

subject is both agent and patient.

__Adverbialized Decimals__

*Our shields are only working at*

__30%__power.**sykätkus tähraet akām**

__gelorthī__īkrī.*shield stimulus MIDMiddle voice (valency)*

subject is both agent and patient three_tenths-ADVAdverbial

e.g. English '-ly' only

subject is both agent and patient three_tenths-ADVAdverbial

e.g. English '-ly' only

[top]Additional Uses of the Lower Class Numeral

The lower class numerals can be used by themselves without the core being present. They retain the value of x*1 and are used to identify specific parts of a series.

For example, earlier in this article, I identified various numerical phrases with "

*phrase 1, phrase 2, etc.*"

If we were to translate this into Shikathi, we could not use the core numerals and say: "

**pransoryton zen , pransoryton fir**" as this would mean "

*one phrase, two phrases*". Instead, Shikathi uses the lower numeral system "

**pransoryton tun, pransoryton vek**" When doing this, it is common to affix the numerals to the word and subsequently shift the emphasis away from that syllable. And so we get "

**prānsorytontn, prānsorytonvk**".

This is also seen on maps and star charts, especially when identifying planets of a star system. For example, Earth is in the Sol system. In Shikathi, this system and it's star is "

**Sorāna**" from Proto-Shikathi "

*Zhu'uur*" (modern:

**Sor-**). From this we get the name of the planets:

**Sorātn**= Mercury (planet # 1)

**Sorāvk**= Venus (planet # 2)

**Sorāve**= Earth (planet # 3)

**Sorāky**= Mars (planet # 4)

**Sorāghū**= Jupiter (planet # 5)

**Sorāmn**= Saturn (planet # 6)

**Sorāvn**= Uranus (planet # 7)

**Sorānr**= Neptune (planet # 8)

**Sorāzm**= Pluto (yes they consider this a planet!) (planet # 9)

For any part of a series after the 9th, Shikathi will use nominalized ordinal numbers. Unlike the normal adjectival usage of ordinal numbers, these form a compound word with the original root.

**Sorāzenrānyth**(the tenth planet in the Sol system)

**Sorāzentunyth**(the eleventh planet in the Sol system)

**Sorāzenvekyth**(the twelfth planet in the Sol system)

**Sorāzenvēyth**(the thirteenth planet in the Sol system)

Another example of this construction can be seen in the name of the months. The Shikathi word for

*month*is

**(a period of**

__dym__rāzhia__nine__moon-phases). And so we have:

**dymrātn**= January (month one)

**dymrāvyk**= February (month two)

**dymrāve**= March (month three)

**dymrāky**= April (month four)

**dymrāghm**= May (month five)

**dymrāmn**= June (month six)

**dymrāvn**= July (month seven)

**dimrar**(irregular) = August (month eight)

**dymrāzm**= September (month nine ... the final month of the Shikathi calendar)

**dymrāzhynrānyth**= October (the tenth month... Earth calendar)

**dymrāzhyntunyth**= November (the eleventh month)

**dymrāzhynvekyth**= December (the twelfth month)

[top]Adjectification and adverbialization of Lower Class Numerals

**Lower class numerals as adjectives**

Just like how cardinal numbers of the core class can become ordinals by tagging on the adjective marker

**-thī / -ðī**, so too can cardinal numbers of the lower class. The difference is akin to the difference between

*first*and

*primary*or

*second*vs.

*secondary*. Remember that the lower class numeral when used by itself represents a specific part in a series. The adjective version of it indicates an order of magnitude, importance or value.

**Note**: As adjectives, these remain as separate words.

**thorānalaet**= generator

**thorānalaetn**= generator #1

**thorānalaet tun**= the primary generator

__thī__In contrast with the core numbers:

**thorānalaet zen**= one generator

**thorānalaet zen**= the first generator

__thī__**Nominalization of Adjectivized Numbers**

Again, just like with the core number system, the lower class number system also has nominalized versions of its adjectives. And so we get:

**tun**= number 1 in a series >

**tunthī**(primary) >

**tunyth**(the primary one / the main one)

**vek**= number 2 in a series >

**vekthī**(secondary) >

**vekyth**(the secondary one)

**vē**= number 3 in a series >

**vēðī**or

**vīðī**(tertiary) >

**vēyth**or

**vīyth**(the tertiary one)

etc.

**Lower class numerals as adverbs**

Remember that adverbs and adjectives are formed in the same way. The difference between them is their placement in a sentence. The meaning of the adverbialized lower class numeral corresponds to the English words:

*primarily*,

*secondarily*, etc. as opposed to

*firstly*,

*secondly*, etc. As with English, the Shikathi equivalent for "

*primarily*"

**(tunthī)**may also take on the meaning of "

*mainly*", "

*for the most part*", "

*essentially*", etc.

*The generator is primarily for the shields, but secondarily, it can power the engines.*

**thorānalaet sykätkudrik akām tun**

__thī__, thoranaet thoranālreb vek__thī__.generator shield-for INTRIntransitive (valency)

has one argument one-ADVAdverbial

e.g. English '-ly', engine energize-GERGerund

verbal noun-TRTransitive (valency)

has two arguments-but two-ADVAdverbial

e.g. English '-ly'.

In contrast with the core numbers:

*The generator powers the shields first, and (then) the engines secondly.*

**thorānalaet sykätkus thorān lator zen**

__thī__, thoranaetpn fir__thī__.generator shield energy TRTransitive (valency)

has two arguments one-ADVAdverbial

e.g. English '-ly', engine-and two-ADVAdverbial

e.g. English '-ly'.

[top]Expressions for Mathematical Operations

Here are some common expressions

**vom lator**= to add

**zen zendrū vom ūmlātr.**

*I add one to one.*

**vom latorys**= to subtract

**zen zensū vom ūmlatorys.**

*I subtract one from one.*

**vomthī lator**= to multiply

**zen zenpn vomthī ūmlātr.**

*I multiply one and one.*

**vomthī latorys**= to divide

**dim lordrō vomthi ūmlatorys.**

*I divide nine by three.*

**zhohorā lator**= to divide (this also means "to divide" but is an older, not quite obsolete expression. It's based on the root word meaning "destruction" and "death")

**dim lordrō zhohorā ūmlātr.**

*I divide nine by three. (literally: I destroy 9 with 3)*

**vomākthī ... -drū**= added to (Shikathi may also use

**-rum**'by' instead of

**-drū**)

**zen vomākthī zendrū fir akām.**

*One added to one is two.*

**pyn (pn)**= and

**zen zenpn fir akām.**

*One and one is two.*

**vomakisthī ... -sū**= subtractd from

**zen vomakisthī zensū harī akām.**

*One subtracted from one is zero.*

**pintō**= and not

**zen zenpintō harī akām.**

*One and not one is zero.*

**vomthithī ... rum**= multiplied by

**zen vomthithī zenrum zen akām.**

*One multiplied by one is one.*

**zhohorāðī ... rum**= divided by (unlike the verb, there is no alternative to this word)

**dim zhohorāðī lorum lor akām.**

*Nine divided by three is three. (literally: Nine destroyed by three is three.)*

[top]Misc Notes to Self

**Confusing numbers**

tae vek era = 964 >

**tevekiera**(stressed syllable 'ie' diphthong)

tae vek kera = 262 >

**tevekera**(just one 'k') (stressed syllable 'vek')

tae ve era = 963 > tevēiera / tevīiera /

**tevīera**(stressed syllable 'ī' .. macron needed to indicate no diphthong) (possible:

**tevira**)

tae ve kera = 263 >

**tevēkera**/

**tevīkera**(stressed syllable "ē" or "ī")

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