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Derivational morphology
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This public article was written by Jute, and last updated on 20 Aug 2017, 10:40.

[comments] Menu
1. Gender-changing derivations
2. Changes in size or mightiness
3. Instrumentals
4. Resultatives and causatives
5. Society
6. Other

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In general, these affixes can be used to derive nouns from other nouns or verbs. For adverbs, -e is usually added to the end, while verbs take -o or -ho, barring some exceptions.

[top]Gender-changing derivations

-a Generic noun suffix for common, physically existing things not related to the wilderness. Derived from the ending of most Common-gender nouns, -a

Known synonymous affixes: None at the moment.

Examples:
donosani 'experience' → donosana 'experienced person'
niooni 'dream' →nioona 'picture, illustration'

-i Generic noun suffix for immaterial and/or abstract things, ideas, concepts etc., also used for some generic nouns and for deriving nouns from verbs. Derived from the ending of most Abstract/Immaterial-gender nouns, -i.

Known synonymous affixes: -hi (particularly used when the word already ends in -i)

Examples:
nesano 'to know' → nesani 'knowledge, knowing'
vuha 'sun' → vuhi 'light'

-u Generic noun suffix for all wilderness-related things that physically exist, such as things to be found in jungles, oceans or other worlds, sometimes also outer space. Also has a few metaphorical uses. Derived from the ending of most Wilderness-gender nouns, -u

Known synonymous affixes: (tba)

Examples:
dova 'tree' → dovu 'jungle tree'
saini 'mind, person, people' →sainu 'instinct, subconscious'

[top]Changes in size or mightiness

-at General augmentative suffix, mostly quantitative. Derived from haadat, "biggestness"

Known synonymous suffixes: -aha, -haa, -haad, ahad

Examples:
saanu 'sea' → saanuahad 'ocean, ocean surface'
seda 'pot' → sedaat 'cauldron'

-it Qualitative augmentative suffix, used when something exceeds something else in a defining quality, for example "magnifying glass" → "microscope". Derived from combining -at with -i.

Known synonymous affixes: -at (rarely)

Examples:
vunojahivo 'magnifying glass' → vujahivit 'microscope'
dooni 'time' →doonat 'special occasion, celebration'

-fi General diminutive suffix. Etymology unclear.

Known synonymous affixes: -ifi (sometimes when the word used as a root ends in a consonant), -fe (when used with adverbs), -ihame (for persons, rare, no longer productive), -ila/-ilu/-ili (gendered variants, rare, no longer productive)

Examples:
dooni 'time' → doonifi 'moment'
favefa 'meal, dish' → favefafi 'snack'

[top]Instrumentals


-ivo General instrumental suffix, for things that are needed or very useful for something. Probably related to vo 'use'

Examples:
hotio 'to write, be written' → hotivo 'pen, quill, writing implement'
joo 'to see, be seen' → jivo 'glasses'

vaili- Tool or machine derivation prefix, used for tools or machines that, rather than making a job easier, complete it for the most part themselves, like soap vs. washing machine. Assumed to originally having been a compound of 'vahi' + 'li' (machine, tool + to/toward)

Examples:
to 'to go' → vailita 'vehicle'
vunojo 'to show' → vailivunojo 'television'

[top]Resultatives and causatives


-efa 'Resultative' derivation suffix, used to derive results from dynamic verbs. Assumed to be related to the causative 'trigger' vo, possibly in combination with a 'of, about, by'

Known synonymous affixes: -eefa

Examples:
favo 'to cook' → favefa 'meal, dish'
to 'to go' → tefa 'destination'
vano 'to burn' → vaneefa 'ash, residue from fire'

-fo Causative verb derivation suffix, used to derive dynamic verbs from a noun. Probably related to the causative trigger vo, similar to the resultative derivation suffix -efa (see above)

Example:
vuhi 'light' → vuhefo 'to lighten (deliberately)'

-vo Causative verb derivation suffix for a derivation from another verb, similar in function to the causative 'trigger' and identical with the form it has. Used especially with unergative verbs that don't allow it being used

Example:
to 'to go' → tovo 'to send, bring in'

-vi Causator noun derivation suffix, to describe the originator or the thing or being causing the existence of a thing, a state of being, or an action. Occasionally used to describe people that cause something to happen as well.

Example:
ami 'job, work' → amivi 'energy'
vani 'fire, heat' → vanivi 'a substance or item that causes heat' / 'someone or some animal/plant that causes heat (to increase)'

[top]Society


-na Endonym/Exonym derivation suffix, used to derive nouns referring to groups of people, mostly ethnicities or populations of a nation/state. Etymologically most likely related to 'no' (to live, be).

Known synonymous affixes:
-ana (after consonants)

Example:
Jute 'Jute' → Jutena 'Jutean, Juteans'

-ni Derivation suffix for (adjectival) nouns describing a relationship to a particular ethnicity or other group of people (e.g. American), from -na + i

Known synonymous affixes:
-ani (after consonants)

Example:
Jute 'Jute' → Juteni 'Jutean'

-ehi Suffix for the derivation of a person sharing a trait/profession/etc. with another one, that is 'a fellow X'. Derived from ehe (too, like, likewise etc.)

Known synonymous affixes:
-hehi (after vowels)

Example:
ama 'worker' → amahehi 'fellow worker, colleague'

-afa Noun derivation suffix for things or places owned or done collectively, probably from a (of, by) and fa (inclusive collective first person pronoun)

Known synonymous affixes:
-fa (after words already ending in -f, particularly -af

Examples:
mihonon 'house' → mihonafa 'community hall'
vettaf 'fight, conflict' → vettaffa 'war'

-mo Agentive derivation suffix used for referring to professions, (more) permanent states or occupations or jobs. Can be used on both nouns and verbs. Originally from amo (to do, work).

Known synonymous affixes:
-amo (after consonants) (when the original words already ends in -mo)

Example:
noitosani 'teaching' → noitosanimo 'teacher'

mo- -he Temporary agentive derivation circumfix, for momentary or transitional states, acts etc. Can also be used both on verbs and nouns. Probably originating by prefixing the aforementioned, more permanent agentive suffix mo and suffixing he

Example:
letafo 'to travel' → moletafohe 'traveller'

-ona The 'patientive' derivation suffix, similar to English '-ee' as in 'employee'. Originally consisted of the combination of -o (verb suffix) + no (patientive trigger suffix) + a (common noun suffix)

Example:
hotuvi (oppression, suppression) → hotuvona (the oppressed, the subjugated)

[top]Other


ilna- Derivation prefix equivalent to "-lessness". From ilni a (absence or lack of).

Example:
diaadif (love) → ilnadiaadif (lovelessness)

evo- Derivation prefix referring to something that is obtained from a natural resource, e.g. ore → metal. Shortened form of evoto (to get, receive, obtain etc.)

-tilo Verb derivation suffix, used to signify the repetition of an action.

Example:
amo (to do, work) → amotilo (do again, repeat, habitually do)

-ilvu A derivation suffix used to form words talking about the end of something. Originates in the word ilvuni (end)

Example:
kiovi (part) → kiovilvu (end part, e.g. of a device)

dona- Prefix used to derive words referring to a period of time. From doona (time)

Known synonymous affixes:
don- (in front of vowels)

Example:
heiti (dullness) → donaheiti (boredom, time of boredom)

-a Suffix added to derive a word from an adjectival noun describing a group defined by sharing that feature/characteristic.

Example:
ohi (beauty) → ohia (the beautiful)

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