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Pronouns and possession
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Personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns and an overview over how possession is expressed
This public article was written by Jute, and last updated on 21 Jul 2017, 14:40.

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1. Personal pronouns
2. Demonstrative pronouns
3. Possessive pronouns and possession

This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

Pronouns and possession

[top]Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are rather complex, and some forms are thought to be almost unique to Jutean. The inanimate pronouns are gendered, the 3rd person pronoun referring to humans however doesn't make distinctions.

Person1st2nd3rd3rd (plants and animals)3rd (inanimate - C., I., W.*)
Singulartanalauvuaha, ehi, ohu
Pluralfa (incl.),
fanal (excl. a single person)
fanafal (excl. multiple persons)
naflafuvufahaf, ehif, ohuf
Collectivefa (incl.)
fafanal (excl. of a group)
fanfaluvuf, fuvu (rarely)ahaf, ehif, ohuf (+ a af/efi/uf)
*C. = Common/civilization gender, I. = Immaterial/abstract gender, W. = Wilderness gender

Colloquially and in some dialects (e.g Sitti), "aha, ehi, ohu" might be used for both singular and plural, and "af, efi, uf" for collective and in some cases also plural.

For the indirect case, the particle he is put in front of the pronoun, for the oblique case the circumferential particle me ... ma is used.

[top]Demonstrative pronouns

They are distinguished by gender and distance (proximal, medial and distal) and don't decline.


[top]Possessive pronouns and possession

An easy part of Jutean are probably possessive pronouns, as there aren't any. a + personal pronoun in the oblique case are used for inalienable possession, relationship or authorship.

Vunam a me laf ma "Their parent" ("Parent of them")
Hotif a me ta ma "My book" [a book that I wrote] ("Book of me")
Ova a vuhatatede "The top of the mountain" ("Top of mountain")

For alienable possession, a relative nominalization is used, so for example vailita a vohi a me ta ma "vehicle that I use" (literally "vehicle of using of me") or hotif a fuumohi a me ta ma "book that I read" (literally "book of reading of me").
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