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Haxyakikan Verbs
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This public article was written by Ahzoh, and last updated on 18 Nov 2017, 01:48.

[comments] Menu 1. Inflectional Morphology 2. Derivational Morphology
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[top]Inflectional Morphology

Indicative
Past RealisPast IrrealisNon-Past RealisNon-Past IrrealisInfinitive
*ā(c)-VERB*śū-ā(c)-VERB*ō(c)-VERB*tū-ō(c)-VERB*i(c)-VERB-u

Jussive
PastNon-PastInfinitive
*wē-ā(c)-VERB*wē-ō(c)-VERB*wē-i(c)-VERB-u

Subjunctive
PastNon-PastInfinitive
*bi-ā(c)-VERB*bi-ō(c)-VERB*bi-i(c)-VERB-u

[top]Derivational Morphology

Proto-Haxyakian uses a variety of infixes, suffixes, prefixes, and reduplication to derive new verbs from old ones. Below shows the four most productive and common morphemes, using xíñ "to brandish, to scrape (tr.)" as an example:
AspectMorphemeWordMeaning
Durative -mō-/-vō- (nasal consonant present)xívōñto brandish or scrape for awhile
Frequentative ka-kaxíñto brandish or scrape frequently
Intensive C₁V₁-/-as (laryngeal consonant present)xixíñto brandish or scrape with greater force than normal
Attenuative -inxíñinto brandish or scrape with less force than normal

Below is a list of less productive morphemes:
AspectMorphemeWordMeaning (< Root Meaning)
Inversive tā-tāxíñto sheath, to press (< to brandish, to scrape)
Faultifier -ċǧē-fā́ċǧēdto mislead, to misguide (< to lead, to guide)
Chaotizer -urmáturto get lost (< to move by foot)
Excessive -nān/-dānpū̀dnānto be zealous (< to devote, to give up)
Conative -uksábukto try to kill, to try to die (< to kill, to die)
Inceptive m-mċíwato enter, to go in (< to be located inside something)
Cessative -do-ċídowato exit, to leave, to go out of (< to be located inside something)

Prepositional morphemes
These morphemes are used primarily with motion verbs. Using rùm "to move on a path (intr.)" as na example:
AspectMorphemeWordMeaning
High/Up/Over (motion in y-axis) ċe-ċerùmto climb up, to ascend
Low/Down/Under (motion in y-axis) bā-bārùmto climb down, to descend
Near/In/Toward (motion in x-axis) zā-zārùmto come
Far/Out/Away (motion in x-axis) pu-purùmto leave
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