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Nouns and Adjectives (or the lack thereof)
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A short overview
This public article was written by Jute, and last updated on 18 Oct 2017, 15:32.

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1. Nouns
2. Adjectives

?FYI...
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Nouns and Adjectives (or the lack thereof)


[top]Nouns


Nouns have a gender and decline for three cases, with some exceptions.

GenderCommonAbstract (-i)Wilderness (-u)
Noundova (tree)dovi (tower, height) dovu (jungle tree)

Gender is mostly predictable if you either know the meaning of a word or the spelling of it, however not all words ending in -i are of the "abstract" gender, nor are all nouns of that gender ending in -i, and the same is true for the other two classes.

CaseDirectIndirectOblique
ending in consonantdovan (forest)dovaniti dovanede
ending in voweldova (tree)dovati dovade

If the declined word has more than five syllables because of the case ending, the ending can become a particle directly following the noun, 'iti' for the indirect case and 'ede' for the oblique case.

The direct case more or less equals the absolutive or nominative (depending on the trigger used), where as indirect and oblique roughly correspond with the direct and indirect object respectively, however they can also have other functions. Most notably, words answering the question "where to?" need the indirect case, whereas the oblique one is used for inalienable possession, relationship or authorship.

As a rule, names of languages (like tahiva a net, 'Coastal Jutean') don't decline, and the same is true for most nouns forming a temporal adverbial phrase, like in vuni 'at the beginning', though this is not followed by all speakers and has been a topic of contention.

[top]Adjectives


These don't have a distinct morphology and are seen as nouns, or adjectival nouns. The only difference is that some don't decline, like for example haad "bigness", or hohi "newness".
To intensify them, haad (here: "much") is inserted after the noun in question, so hohi haad would translate to "very new" (literally "newness much"). Rarely a haada is used instead, which would translate to "of biggerness". Exceptions to this are "very big", "very good", and "very bad", where haada, ukea and dohaa would be used instead.

Comparative of an (adjectival) noun is formed by adding a haada "of biggerness" (or a ilhaada "of smallerness" when the things a noun is compared to is smaller in degree or quality), and either hehe "still, even" to the end of the sentence, or adding a construction with ilehe "unlike, than", like for example: No ta a nihaa a haada ilehe me na ma "I am older than you" (literally "I am of oldness of biggerness than you"). The noun following ilehe has to be in the oblique case, as with most adpositions.

The superlative is constructed with a haadat "of biggestness" after it, as in Nuno ta an mihonode a nihaa a haadat. "I live in the oldest house" ("I live in the house of oldness of biggestness")

In both cases, "big", "good" and "bad" are exceptions again, using a haada, a ukea or a dohaa for the comparative and a haadat, a ukeat and a doat for the superlative.

Copular verbs use comparative and superlative in the same way, so for example No ji a dovi a haada hehe means "This is higher [still]" and No ji a dovi a haadat "This is the highest [one/thing]"

Stative verbs like ildeso ("be sure/be strict") use the adverb haade to form a comparative, as in Ildeso fal haade ("They are stricter/surer [of it]") with a comparing noun phrase introduced again with ilehe, and haadat for the superlative, as in Ildeso fal haadat ("They are [the] strictest [about it]/surest [about it]").
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