cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Dodaes Tagmesciél
0▲ 0 ▼ 0
Regional Speech
This public article was written by argyle, and last updated on 8 Dec 2016, 12:44.

[comments] Menu
1. Changes to final /d/
2. Resumptive Pronouns
3. Vowels in Hiatus
4. Miscellaneous Pronunciation
5. [v] Vocalization

The speech of the Edievian capital, Claën, was the basis of standard Edievian. Since the establishment of the standard language, however, the speech of the capital has changed slightly. While it is fully intelligible to other speakers, it is marked and a dead-giveaway of someone native to Claën.

[top]Changes to final /d/

Final /d/ is lost in all words in the speech of Claën. This is presumed to be an extension of the loss of the final [d] in the second person singular imperative form of verbs, c.f. scaolae - scaolad ['s̪k.ɔl̪ɛ - 's̪kɔ.l̪a] (to look - look!). All words with final /d/ are affected. This is often humorously characterized in a Claën speaker saying "I speak Edievian":

Written: <Dod taaevaod.> Standard: ['d̪od̪ t̪a'ɛ.vɔd̪] Claën: ['d̪o t̪a'ɛ.vɔ] English: I speak Edievian.

In writing, to show elided /d/, authors often employ an apostrophe: "Do' taaevao'.".

Final /d͡ʒ/ is also affected. Almost all instances of final /d͡ʒ/ come from palatalized /d/, either in verb forms or noun plurals. Final /d͡ʒ/ loses its plosive component and becomes plain /ʒ/. This causes some instances of homophony:

Written: <cavd cáivd cavg cáivg> Standard: [kavd̪ kavd͡ʒ kavg kavʒ] Claën: [kav kavʒ kavg kavʒ] English: stew stews disagreement disagreements

This pronunciation is often imitated by other speakers, especially in the word máind (years), and even in writing (as máing).

[top]Resumptive Pronouns

Edievian pronouns have identical forms for the nominative and accusative, but separate forms for the dative, genitive, and for use with all prepositions. It is common that accusative pronouns end up at the end of a sentence after a long subject, and it is presumed that to tie the object back to the phrase, Claën speakers began to employ resumptive pronouns.

The resumptive pronoun only appears in sentences in which the direct object (accusative) pronoun is left at the end of the sentence unaccompanied; if it is contracted with a dative (indirect object) pronoun or followed by a dative phrase, the resumptive pronoun is not used. The resumptive pronoun agrees in person, number, and animacy with the subject of the verb, and then contracts with the direct object (accusative) pronoun. See here for the subject-direct object pronoun contractions.

Standard: Scaolaen siáe cam les ir veteb gae. see-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
DEFDefinite
"the"
man RELRelative wash windows 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
Claën: Scaolaen siáe cam les ir veteb le'g. see-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
DEFDefinite
"the"
man RELRelative wash windows 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
~1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
English: The man who washes windows saw me.

Standard: Taraen siáe grobaiof laontan le. hit-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
DEFDefinite
"the"
hailstone large 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
Claën: Taraen siáe grobaiof laontan ne'l. hit-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
DEFDefinite
"the"
hailstone large 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
~3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
English: The giant hailstone hit her.

The usage of resumptive pronouns is extending out from Claën and is found in other areas of central Edievia. The southern part of the country is more readily making this change than the north.

[top]Vowels in Hiatus

The speech of Claën, Aovo, and most of the western and southern parts of Edievia does not allow vowels in hiatus; this is to say that any two vowels must have a glide between them. The rules governing glide insertion (or reduction of full vowels to glides) are complex, but entirely predictable. The glides involved depend the involved vowel's frontness/backness; /ɛ e i/ take /j/, while /ɔ o u/ take /w/.

If the first vowel of the pair in hiatus is stressed, then the appropriate glide is inserted:

EdievianPhonemicPhoneticEnglish
peat/'pe.at̪/['pe.jat̪]list
ioar/'jo.aɾ/['jo.waɾ]maple
aët/'a.et̪/['a.jet̪]luck
paö/'pa.o/['pa.wo]spine, spike

If the first vowel in hiatus is unstressed, it is reduced to the appropriate glide. If the resulting glide is /j/ and follows /ʃ ʒ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/, it is elided. This reduction to just a glide is blocked, however, if the new glide would follow /l̪ ɾ j w/. Instead, the appropriate glide is inserted.

EdievianPhonemicPhoneticEnglish
teanec/t̪e'a.n̪ek/['t̪ja.n̪ek]teapot
poagaes/po'a.gɛs̪/['pwa.gɛs̪]reduction
siéara/ʃe'a.ɾa/['ʃa.ɾa]evening
dióan/d͡ʒo'an̪/['d͡ʒwan̪]customs
but...
reandron/ɾe'an̪.d̪ɾon̪/[ɾe'jan̪.d̪ɾon̪]toxin
loasom/l̪o'a.s̪om/[l̪o'wa.s̪om]deodorant

All of these examples involve /a/ with higher vowel. The same rules apply when the two vowels are the same height (or just don't include /a/), but the glide involved is dependent on the first of the two vowels.

EdievianPhonemicPhoneticEnglish
ceot/'ke.ot̪/['ke.jot̪]lock
reúig/ɾe'uʒ/[ɾe'juʒ]suicides
naoaebrae/n̪ɔ'ɛ.bɾɛ/['n̪wɛ.bɾɛ]to wink
aoec/'ɔ.ek/['ɔ.wek]honest
eocfotroc/e.ok'fo.t̪ɾok/[jok'fo.t̪ɾok]arthritis


[top]Miscellaneous Pronunciation

Some words are pronounced differently than from standard Edievian. Some of these differences have spread to other parts of the country, and many of them are common not only to Claën but to Restits (the largest city in the country) and other urban centers in the west of the country.

WordStandardClaënEnglish
iaö/jao//jo/and
ab/av//au̯/I am, you are, s/he/it is

[top][v] Vocalization

Particular to the western-most parts of the Siél Peninsula is full vocalization of final [v] to [u̯]. [v] can originate from final /v/ or final /b/ (pronunciation of final /b/ as [v] didn't emerge until the 1940s, but now is standard in virtually all contexts, dialects, and regionalisms), so words ending in <v> and <b> are pronounced like they end in <u>. This is blocked if the final [v] follows a consonant. The table below illustrates a few examples (note that the standard pronunciation will show the finall /b/ > [v] shift).

WrittenStandardVocalizedEnglish
plab/pl̪av/[pl̪au̯]wrapper
caev/kɛv/[kɛu̯]angry
lov/l̪ov/[l̪ou̯]deaf
but...
ierv/jeɾv/[jeɾv]grass
oselv/os̪el̪v/[os̪el̪v]feral

These dialects will often express this vocalization in writing, replacing the <v> with <u>, <uh>, or even <w> instead. This is characteristic of Siélic orthography, such as the following except from a Siélic singer:

Hus siw gaew dúis lagen, caws hus dovelg biw dogaw Then we will sing in the mountains, because then we will be truly alive


Comments (0)
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 21-Nov-17 08:15