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This public article was written by hashi, and last updated on 21 Apr 2015, 12:16.

[comments] Menu
1. Vocabulary
2. Dialogue
3. Notes
4. Test

?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
Welcome to Lesson 3 in Nithalosian!

In this lesson, you will learn: how to discuss food, say what you like, and ask for something.

[top]Vocabulary

Take a look below at the vocabulary for this lesson. Vocabulary that was learned in previous lessons will not be repeated here.
NithalosEnglishNotes
taprusohungry
pisapizzaborrowed from English
tasito wantif used after +ya, can just be tas
po amiI think that... / do you think that ...
amar venot really
spagetispaghettiborrowed from English
taprito eat
tapadarestaurant
poniknow [of]
po poniI know that... / do you know that ...
ošencow / beef
tatwo
movayou (plural)
vriwhat
nomoa drink
an or venot/no for me
evibut
evhe/she
sumvawater
tais na tai20 minutestais means 'minute', tai [nai] means 20
gi sait will be done in ...used directly after a period of time
saya kyanthank you


[top]Dialogue

See below the dialogue between Lađga and Yanar (Y). These two have introduced themselves already and their focus now turns to finding somewhere to eat.

Dialogue 1 L: Vai, mou tapruso'ks? Y: Ša. Pisau tasi po ami, pisau vromi? L: Amar ve. Spagetiu tapriya nala? Y: Ša. Vai, spagetiu tapriom? L: Ša, yođ tapadau poni. Y: Yoka!


So the two of them go to the good restaurant that Lađga knows of. The following is the conversation between Yanar (Y) and the Arvisam (A) - or "waiter".

Dialogue 2 A: Sađa! Mova vriu tasi po poni? Y: Ša. Ošen vasna spageti'n ta priya kudos. A: Yoka se. Mova nomo vo tasi? Y: An or ve, evi ev sumvau tasi. A: Yoka. Tapran tais na tai gi sa. Y: Saya kyan!


[top]Notes

Becoming (aks)
In Nithalos, if you want to show that something is becoming something else, you can use the particle aks. This generally follows the thing it becomes, and sometimes has the verb nari after it. In most cases though, nari can be dropped. When the word ends with a vowel (as is common with most adjectives), the aks becomes 'ks and is attached to the end of the word. For example in the text above, tapruso (hungry) will be changed to tapruso'ks (becoming/getting hungry).

Like (vromi) vs. Like to (-ya nala)
There are two ways to say you like something in Nithalos. If you like a thing, you can use the verb vromi. The thing you like must take the suffix +u to show this. For example: I like cake (tudi) is [an] tudiu vromi.

If it is an action you like, then the verb will take the +ya suffix, and then the auxiliary word nala. So for example, the phrase tudiu tapri (I eat cake) can be changed to tudiu tapriya nala (I like eating cake).

Should we? Let's! (+om)
If you want to show a volition or suggestion in Nithalos, the verb takes the suffix +om. In the dialogue above, spagetiu tapriom means "shall we eat spaghetti?".

Vasna
Vasna is a combination of two particles: vas (which was covered earlier, meaning 'with' or 'using') and na which links two ideas together. In this particular dialogue, ošen vasna spageti means literally "spaghetti that is using cow/beef". The na particle can be combed with most other particles in a similar fashion, for example: an orna tapran means "the food that is for me" (where or means "for").

Counting objects with na/'n
In Nithalos when you count or numerate an object or idea, the number comes after the noun, with the particle na between. This is different from the linking na mentioned above. If the noun before na ends in a vowel, you can change the particle to 'n and attach it to the noun. For example:

Samen na ta - Two trees
Tudi'n ta - Two cakes

Note that there is no difference between "cake" and "cakes" in Nithalos. The language does not show a plural form at all. So, samen means both "tree", and "trees".

Please and thank you
When requesting an action with 'please' in Nithalos, add the +ya suffix to the verb, then add kudos afterwards. In the dialogue, priya kudos means "we will please take".

Saying thank you is very easy. The phrase is simply saya kyan. If you are speaking in a less formal setting, you can just say saya.

[top]Test

Here's a short test to see if you're able to manipulate the information in this lesson. Some of these structures may not have directly been covered in the lesson, but by using the information given you should be able to work them out. Please note you only have one attempt at each question!

1How do you say 'two cows'  
2"The cow is getting cleaner"Ošenu  
3"The teacher should work in the city"      
4"It is said that water is good"      
5"No, not for him"   or ve


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