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Edievian Relative Clauses
This public article was written by argyle, and last updated on 23 Sep 2016, 13:01.

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1. Pronominal Relative Pronouns
2. Passivization of Accusative Antecedents
3. Adverbial Relative Pronouns

?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
Relative clauses in Edievian were, at one time, a simple affair. Edievian shifted from having just a few relative pronouns to having a myriad of them, along with rules governing transitive verbs.

The relative pronouns can be broken two groups: pronominal relative pronouns, which correlative to nouns and pronouns in the main clause, and adverbial relative pronouns, which correlate to verbs in the main clause.

[top]Pronominal Relative Pronouns

Like the third person pronouns, the pronominal relative pronouns agree in number and animacy (and case, in terms of prepositions) with their antecedents. All the relative pronouns are derived from the original, non-relative pronoun plus sae, the original relative pronoun. Contemporary Edievian considers sae-usage uneducated and uncultured, to the point of it being ridiculed (some dialects maintain sae; these dialects are not held in high regard). See below for each set of relative pronouns along with examples.
Nominative & Accusative*
ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
lesnes
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
lisnis
*Relative clauses in Edievian
cannot have antecedents that are
semantically accusative, this will be
explained later in this article.
Examples:
    He is the man that is eating.
    Ab le siáe cam les siáomaéis.

    ab
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    le
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    siáe
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    cam
    man
    les
    RELRelative.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    siáom-aéis
    eat-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PRESPresent Tense (tense)
    current
    .PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing

    Cam is a singular animate noun, hence the use of le as the subject and les as the relative pronoun.


    The planes that were flying landed.
    Anetagadáind sié smalúit nis ruandiás.

    anetagad-áind
    land-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    .PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
    have verb-ed
    sié
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    smalúit
    airplane.PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    nis
    RELRelative.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    ru-andiás
    fly-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    .PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing

    Smalúit is a plural inanimate noun, so nis is used as the relative pronoun.


Genitive (Inalienable)
ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
olsons
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
uisuins
Examples:
    She is the woman whose daughter arrived.
    Ab le siáe baen ols ravastaen siáe lab.

    ab
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    le
    3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    siáe
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    baen
    woman
    ols
    RELRelative.GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    .INALInalienable (possesson)
    thing that can't be gained or lost
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    ravast-aen
    arrive-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    .PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
    have verb-ed
    siáe
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    lab
    daughter

    Ols refers back to the relationship between baen, a singular animate noun, and lab, which must be possessed inalienably due to the familial relationship, siáe lab óis baen.


    There're the dogs whose paws are bloodied!
    Iavans sié méic uis bans sié péit varusiúl!

    iav-ans
    be.there-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .PRESPresent Tense (tense)
    current
    .PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    sié
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    méic
    dog.PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    uis
    RELRelative.GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    .INALInalienable (possesson)
    thing that can't be gained or lost
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    bans
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .PRESPresent Tense (tense)
    current
    .PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    sié
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    péit
    paw.PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    varusiúl
    bloodied.PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few

    Uis refers to the relationship between méic, a plural animate noun, and péit, a plural inanimate noun. The paws are owned inalienably by the dogs, sié péit úis méic.


Genitive (Alienable)
ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
alsans
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
aisains
Examples:
    The car with the flat tire left.1 2
    Hentaraen siáen afto ans baéis siáe pano merob.
    hentar-aen
    leave-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    .PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
    have verb-ed
    siáen
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    afto
    car
    ans
    RELRelative.GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    .ALAlienable (possession)
    thing that can be gained or lost
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    baéis
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PRESPresent Tense (tense)
    current
    .PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    siáe
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    pano
    tire
    merob
    flat

    Ans is used because afto, car, is a singular inanimate noun, and it inalienably possesses pano, tire: siáe pano áis afto.
    1 This could be formatted as 'the car whose tire is flat left', but English frowns upon 'whose' with an inanimate antecedent.
    2 Tires are considered interchangeable and therefore not under the 'parts of a whole' rule for alienable vs. inalienable possession distinction.



Dative
ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
aelsaens
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
isins
Examples:
    These are the men that I gave the money to.
    Iavan sié cam is tiágan siáen aomal.

    iav-an
    be.there-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .GNOGnomic (aspect/mood)
    common, timeless truths
    sié
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    cam
    man.PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    is
    RELRelative.DATDative (case)
    indirect object; beneficiary
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    tiág-an
    give-1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    .PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
    have verb-ed
    siáen
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    aomal
    money

    Is is used because it refers to cam, a plural animate noun. This sentence could be more literally translated as "Here are the men to whom I gave the money."


Relative clauses with pronominal antecedents that would take any other preposition disregard Edievian's usual rule of prepositions: they do not inflect for person or number. Instead, the preposition is placed before the corresponding nominative relative pronoun.

[top]Passivization of Accusative Antecedents

As briefly noted above, relative pronouns cannot refer to an antecedent that is accusative. If the antecedent is accusative, the verb is instead put in the passive, and the relative clause's accusative object becomes the new 'nominative' subject. Let's look at some English sentences before examining Edievian ones:

    Here is the man that I met.


"That I met" refers to the man: this one sentence could be rephrased as "Here is the man. I met the man." The relative clause is taking the place of an accusative noun, so conceivably it could be said:

    *Iavaéis siáe cam les aontofan.
    iav-aéis
    be.there-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PRESPresent Tense (tense)
    current
    .PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    siáe
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    cam
    man
    les
    RELRelative.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    aontof-an
    meet-1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    .PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
    have verb-ed


This sentence, however, is not grammatical. Instead, the verb must be put in the passive, and the original subject ("I") put with the preposition si:

    Iavaéis siáe cam les baonaontofaen sig.
    iav-aéis
    be.there-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PRESPresent Tense (tense)
    current
    .PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    siáe
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    cam
    man
    lnes
    RELRelative.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    baon-aontof-aen
    PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    -meet-1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    .PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
    have verb-ed
    sig
    by.1First person (person)
    speaker, signer, etc; I
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity

    Literally, "There is the man who was met by me."


Further examples:

    Where is the cookie she ate?
    Do vames baéis siáe bescot nes baosiáomaen sil?

    do vames
    where.QInterrogative
    question
    baéis
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    .3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PRESPresent Tense (tense)
    current
    .PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    siáe
    DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    bescot
    cookie
    nes
    RELRelative.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    bao-siáom-aen
    PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    -eat-3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PSTPast (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    .PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
    have verb-ed
    sil
    by.3Third person (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving

    Literally, "Where is the cookie that was eaten by her?"


[top]Adverbial Relative Pronouns

Much like English has "what" to serve as an adverbial relative pronoun, Edievian nes pulls double duty. Compare the following sentences in English and Edievian:

    I know what you ate for breakfast.
    Aontas nes siáomen fael naóisclo.
    Literally: I know it-that you ate as breakfast.
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